Mass Depopulation and Euthanasia: Swine

Mass Depopulation and Euthanasia: Swine

Mass Depopulation & Euthanasia Swine Euthanasia Adapted from the FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Mass Depopulation and Euthanasia (2015) Euthanasia and Depopulation Euthanasia Transitioning painlessly and stress-free as possible Mass Depopulation Large numbers, quickly and efficiently

Consideration to welfare as practicable Terms used interchangeably here FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Euthanasia and Depopulation May be practiced during an animal health emergency Goals of Euthanasia Provide humane treatment Select acceptable method

Minimize negative emotional impact Safeguard food chain Prevent or mitigate disease spread FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Handling Goal: Humane Treatment Decrease animal stress, excitement Do not force animals to travel quickly Avoid electric prods

Sorting boards Human body position Flight zones Flags and plastic paddles Handle animals quietly FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH

General Handling Flight Zone, Point of Balance, Blind Spot FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Acceptable Methods Acceptable: noninhalant injectable Acceptable for all classes of pigs Barbiturates

Barbituric acid derivatives FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Conditionally Acceptable Methods Physical Captive bolt Penetrating- mature and grower-finisher Non-penetrating- nursery, suckling

Gunshot (mature, grower-finisher) Electrocution (mature, grower-finisher, nursery, suckling >10 lbs) Blunt force trauma (suckling pigs) Inhaled agents FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Adjunct Methods If primary euthanasia fails, personnel should be prepared to apply an adjunct measure such as: Pithing

Exsanguination Second shot FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Chemical Agents Usually impractical Individual handling/restraint Expensive Carcass disposal Recordkeeping

May be used if animal is hand-raised FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Chemical Agents Major drawbacks Volume of agent required Difficulty of suitable venous access Carcass disposal issues Prolonged restraint time needed

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Physical- Carbon Dioxide Protocols under development Endorsed for smaller swine Up to 70lbs (32kg) Impractical for larger animals/farms Safety of personnel Training Equipment

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Physical- Captive Bolt Use appropriate restraint Methods Young pigs Firm holding, body sling Lifting with two contact points Larger pigs Center-line conveyor

Snaring individually FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Aiming Captive Bolt Pigs <300 lbs Middle of forehead; 0.5-1 in. above eyes Mature pigs: sows, boars Adjust target area Use correct size bolt, charge

Adjunct method on hand FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Single Step Captive Bolt Under development Euthanizes in one step Interchangeable captive bolts for different size animals Various lengths, thicknesses, charges

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt Lethal concussive trauma Up to 12 lbs primary euthanasia Up to 70 lbs use with adjunct step Lethal concussive trauma Positioning same as captive bolt Not recommended >70 lbs

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Captive Bolt: Effects Immediate collapse, postural rigidity, gradual relaxation Involuntary kicking and paddling Insensible pigs: Lack corneal reflex No deliberate movement No rhythmic breathing If in doubt: re-stun, adjunct method

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Physical- Gunshot Trained, experienced personnel Follow safety guidelines At close range, same point of entry as captive bolt Muzzle NEVER in contact with head Mature animal skulls may be more difficult to penetrate Use appropriate ammunition

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Physical- Gunshot (contd) Long range gunshot generally unacceptable If necessary Point of entry between eye and base of ear Do not target chest, neck Risk of free bullets and human

injuries FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Physical- Electrocution Method has been successfully used Stunning and death Electric current directly through head and heart 15 seconds to achieve death Head stunning

Electrodes on sides of head 2-3 seconds for proper stun Unconscious for 30 sec Adjunct method within 15 sec FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Confirmation of Death

Confirmation of death can be difficult Sustained lack of heartbeat and respiration Rigor mortis Evaluate by competent, experienced personnel FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH For More Information FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Mass Depopulation and

Euthanasia (MDE) (2015) http://www.aphis.usda.gov/fadprep MDE web-based training module http://naherc.sws.iastate.edu/ FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Guidelines Content Authors (CFSPH): Rene Dewell DVM,MS Nichollette Rider, Veterinary Student

Significant contributions to the content were provided by USDA APHIS VS: Lori P. Miller, PE Darrel K. Styles, DVM, PhD FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: MDE-Swine USDA APHIS and CFSPH Acknowledgments Development of this presentation was by the Center for Food Security and

Public Health at Iowa State University through funding from the USDA APHIS Veterinary Services PPT Authors: Dawn Bailey, BS; Kerry Leedom Larson, DVM, MPH, PhD, DACVPM Reviewers: Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MPH, DACVPM: Cheryl L. Eia, JD, DVM, MPH, Patricia Futoma, BS, Veterinary Student, Rene Dewell DVM,MS

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