Communities in Mangrove Ecosystem Community Ecology Lobsang Tsering Outline
Introduction Distribution in world Mangrove Community Mangrove ecosystem services
Status of mangrove forest Summary References Mangrove
Derived from word Mangal -trees and ecosystem. Trees and shrubs that are uniquely adapted to saline and inter tidal coastlines. Located in 30South and 30North from the Equator. Grow well in freshwater mixes with saline water and where sediment is accumulated in the form of Mud. Broadly classified into two group
True mangrove ( Exclusive mangrove species) Associated mangrove species Mangrove A total no of 69 sp. in 27 genera, 20 families are considered as true Mangrove sp. ( Duke, 1992, Bringham and Kathiresan, 2001 and Selvam et al., 2004) Mangrove wetland are classified into six types on the basis of the geophysical, geomorphological and biological factors.
- River dominated - Tide dominated - Wave dominated - Composite river and wave dominated - Drowned bedrock valley - Mangroves in carbonate areas. (Thom, 1984) What makes Mangroves so special? Adaptation- cope with highly
dynamic and harsh environment. Breathing roots, also called as pneumatophores for gaseous exchange due to anaerobic mud flat. Salt glands to remove excess salt in the plant. Stilled root, for strength Vivipary for successful
germination Distribution Heidelberg, 2015 and updated Duke et al., 1998 Species richness of Mangroves as a function of longitude 1999 Blackwell Science Ltd, Global Ecology and Biogeography
Anomalous biogeographical pattern solved? Mangrove Species richness declines dramatically from maximum Indo-West Pacific (IWP) to minimum Atlantic East Pacific(AEP)
Two hypothesis have been put forward. The Centre of Origin Hypothesis: all mangrove taxa are originated in IWP and dispersed to other parts of the world. The Vicariance Hypothesis: Mangrove taxa evolved around the Tethys Sea during late Cretaceous and regional species diversity resulted from in situ diversification after continental drift. Five lines evidences are used to explained this Fossil records
Associated flora and fauna patterns Other related ecosystems corals and sea grass environment. (Origin of mangrove ecosystems and biodiversity anomaly, Ellison et al.,1999)
Communities in Mangrove Microorganisms: Detritus fungi and bacteria decomposed leave litters and organic masses to continue nutrients recycling.
Algae: Such nutrients are important source for algae both unicellular and macrophysics to grow. Invertebrates: Fishes: Reptiles and Amphibians: Birds:
Mammals: Serenity valley of academy Uca! giphy.mp4 Mangrove ecosystem services..
Estimated the monetary value of Mangrove ecosystem services in southeast Asia. The mean and median values are found to be 4185 and 239 US$/ha/year. The estimate foregone annual benefits in 2050 are US$ 2.2 billion with the prediction interval of US$ 1.6-2.8 billion.
The role of Mangroves in increasing marine fish output in India, west coast. Mangrove improve the technical efficiency of fish production in coastal state. Mangroves contribution to marine fish output in India was 23% in 2011. Mangrove ecosystem services.. Ecosystem connectivity
Status of Mangrove FAO, 2000 Ecosystem connectivity Summary
Mangroves are tropical plants that grow in harsh environment and adapted to survive in saline and intertidal region. They are distributed widely in tropical and subtropical regions Provide habitat for large no of communities from unicellular
microorganisms to large mammals. Mangrove ecosystem services are crucial for mankind and other neighboring ecosystem. We are facing loss 50 % mangrove cover from last 50 years. References.
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