Managing Projects - California State University, Northridge
The Nature of Project Management Characteristics of Projects: purpose, life cycle, interdependencies, uniqueness, and conflict. Project Management Process: planning (work breakdown structure), scheduling, and controlling. Selecting the Project Manager: credibility, sensitivity, ability to handle stress, and leadership. Building the Project Team: Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing. Principles of Effective Project Management: direct people individually and as a team, reinforce excitement, keep everyone informed, manage healthy conflict, empower team, encourage risk taking and creativity. Work Breakdown Structure 1.0 Move the hospital (Project) 1.1 Move patients (Task) 1.1.1 Arrange for ambulance (Subtask) 184.108.40.206 Prepare patients for move 220.127.116.11 Box patients personnel effects 1.2 Move furniture 1.2.1. Contract with moving company
Project Management Questions What activities are required to complete a project and in what sequence? When should each activity be scheduled to begin and end? Which activities are critical to completing the project on time? What is the probability of meeting the project completion due date? How should resources be allocated to activities? Tennis Tournament Activities Activity Description Immediate Designation Predecessor Negotiate for Location A Contact Seeded Players B Plan Promotion C A Locate Officials D C Send RSVP Invitations E
C Sign Player Contracts F B,C Purchase Balls and Trophies G D Negotiate Catering H E,F Prepare Location I E,G Tournament J H,I Duration (days) 2 8 3 2 10 4 4 1 3 2
Notation for Critical Path Analysis Item Activity duration Symbol t Definition The expected duration of an activity Early start ES The earliest time an activity can begin if all previous activities are begun at their earliest times Early finish EF The earliest time an activity can be completed if it is started at its early start time Late start LS The latest time an activity can begin without delaying the completion of the project
Late finish LF The latest time an activity can be completed if it is started at its latest start time Total slack TS The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the completion of the project Tennis Tournament Activity on Node Diagram TS A2 C3 START B8 F4 D2
G4 E10 I3 H1 ES EF LS LF J2 PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique PERTProgram Evaluation Review Technique Assumes each activity duration has a range that statistically follows a beta distribution . Uses three time estimates for each activity: optimistic, pessimistic, and a weighted average to represent activity durations. Knowing the weighted average and variances for
each activity allows the project planner to compute the probability of meeting different project durations. 78 Tennis Tournament Activity on Node Diagram TS A2 C3 START B8 F4 D2 G4 E10 I3 H1 ES
pessimistic Formulas for Beta Distribution of Activity Duration Expected Duration _ A4M B D 6 Variance B A V 6 2 Note: (B - A )= Range or 6 Activity Means and Variances for Tennis Tournament Activity A B C D
E F G H I J a 1 5 2 1 6 2 1 1 2 2 m 2 8 3 2 9 4 3 1 2 2
144/36 16/36 100/36 0 36/36 0 Uncertainly Analysis Assumptions 1. Use of Beta Distribution and Formulas For D and V 2. Activities Statistically Independent 3. Central Limit Theorem Applies ( Use student t if less than 30 activities on CP) 4. Use of Critical Path Activities Leading Into Event Node Result Project Completion Time Distribution is Normal With: _ D For Critical Path Activities 2 V For Critical Path Activities Completion Time Distribution for Tennis Tournament Critical Path Activities
A C E I J D 2 3 10 3 2 = 20 V 4/36 4/36 144/36 36/36 0 2 188/36 = 5.2 = Question What is the probability of an overrun if a 24 day completion time is promised? X
24 20 Z 5.2 Z 2 5.2 Z 1.75 20 24 P (Time > 24) = .5 - .4599 = .04 or 4% Days Activity Cost-time Tradeoff Cost C* Crash Slope is cost to expedite per day Normal C D*
D Activity Duration (Days) Cost-Time Estimates for Project Activit Norma y l Time Crash Time Norma l Cost Crash Cost A 2 1 $6 $10 B
5 2 $9 $18 C 4 3 $6 $8 D 3 1 $5 $9 Progressive Crashing B
A D C Progressive Crashing Using Normal Times, What is the critical path? A-B-D : 10 days (Critical Path) A-C-D : 9 days Using Normal Times, How long is the project expected to take? Critical Path Time : 10 days Using Normal Times, How much will the project cost? Normal Cost to complete A,B,C,D = 6+9+6+5=$26 Progressive Crashing Cuts Addition al Cost Completio n Time After Cuts Total Cost
10 ---- --- --- $26 ABD 10 D cut 1 $2 9 $28 ABD 9 D cut 1 $2
8 $30 ABD 8 B cut 1 $3 7 $33 ABD ACD 7 A cut 1 $4 6 $37
ABD ACD 6 B cut 1 C cut 1 $3 $2 5 $42 Current CP Completio n Time ABD
Each unit of merchandise can be identified with a specific purchase price. Only practical if each unit has a unique identification number (e.g., VIN for an automobile) Under the specific identification inventory cost flow method, the unit sold can be...
Starter Quiz. Identify one IDA that could be used to evaluate Circadian rhythms. Why is understanding circadian rhythms useful? Provide a limitation of research into the disruption of circadian rhythms. What is the difference between Ultradian and Infradian rhythms? Give...
ESIP Session Speed Talks. Tuesday, 2:45 pm - A Metadata Database Built on Usage Patterns in the LTER Network (Tim, Margaret, Gastil) Wednesday, 10:30 am - The Information Management Code Registry: Software Solutions for Information Management Needs (Colin, Kristin)
About these slides. These slides give a comprehensive overview of the EASL clinical practice guidelines on autoimmune hepatitis. The guidelines were published in full in the October 2015 issue of the Journal of Hepatology
Production of Low-Cost Controlled-Morphology Metal-Oxides for Multifunctional Coatings. Soydan Ozcan. Materials Science and Technology Division. Eugene R. Cochran. Commercialization Manager. Yuan Lu, AaraonArmentrout
isprofit less than normal (P < average total cost) Abnormal profit - is any profit achieved in excess of normal profit - also known as . supernormal profit. When firms are making . abnormal profits, there is an incentive for...
Blackboard Help Chain for IHCS Students Vince Clark - Learning Technologist Institute of Health & Community Studies Bournemouth University R307, Royal London House Christchurch Road, Bournemouth Dorset, BH1 3LT Telephone: (01202) 962756 Email: [email protected] Where are you logging on?
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!