Management 8e. - Robbins and Coulter

Management 8e. - Robbins and Coulter

Organizational Design Decisions Mechanistic Organization Organic Organization A rigid and tightly controlled structure High specialization Rigid departmentalization Narrow spans of control High formalization Limited information network (mostly downward communication) Low decision participation by lower-level employees

Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Canada Highly flexible and adaptable structure Non-standardized jobs Fluid team-based structure Little direct supervision Minimal formal rules Open communication network Empowered employees 9-1 Exhibit 9.5 Mechanistic Versus Organic Organization

Mechanistic High Specialization Rigid Departmentalization Clear Chain of Command Narrow Spans of Control Centralization High Formalization Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Canada Organic

Cross-Functional Teams Cross-Hierarchical Teams Free Flow of Information Wide Spans of Control Decentralization Low Formalization 9-2 Structural Contingency Factors Structural decisions are influenced by: Overall strategy of the organization

Organizational structure follows strategy Size of the organization Firms change from organic to mechanistic organizations as they grow in size Technology use by the organization Firms adapt their structure to the technology they use Degree of environmental uncertainty Dynamic environments require organic structures; mechanistic structures need stable environments Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-3 Structural Contingency Factors Strategy Frameworks: Innovation Pursuing competitive advantage through meaningful and unique innovations favouring organic structuring

Cost minimization Focusing on tightly controlling costs requires a mechanistic structure for the organization Imitation Minimizing risks and maximizing profitability by copying market leaders requires both organic and mechanistic elements in the organizations structure Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-4 Structural Contingency Factors Strategy and Structure Achievement of strategic goals is facilitated by changes in organizational structure that accommodate and support change Size and Structure As an organization grows larger, its structure tends to change from organic to mechanistic with increased specialization, departmentalization,

centralization, and rules and regulations Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-5 Structural Contingency Factors Technology and Structure Organizations adapt their structures to their technology Woodwards classification of firms based on the complexity of the technology employed: Unit production of single units or small batches Mass production of large batches of output Process production in continuous process of outputs Routine technology = mechanistic organizations Nonroutine technology = organic organizations Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-6

Structural Contingency Factors Environmental Uncertainty and Structure Mechanistic organizational structures tend to be most effective in stable and simple environments The flexibility of organic organizational structures is better suited for dynamic and complex environments Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-7 Exhibit 9.6 Woodwards Findings on Technology, Structure, and Effectiveness Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-8

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