Making Mega-Watt Neutrino Beams - Fermilab

Making Mega-Watt Neutrino Beams - Fermilab

LBNF/DUNE beam & target system Chris Densham, Peter Loveridge, Tristan Davenne, Joe ODell, Mike Fitton, Phil Jeffery, Geoff Burton, Eric Harvey-Fishenden, Dan Wilcox, Michael Parkin (STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) John Back (Warwick University) LBNF/DUNE US/UK Agreement Hierarchy Top layer the US/UK Science and Technology Agreement, signed at Ministerial level, which is legally binding 2nd layer Implementing Agreement, signed by DOE and UK Ambassador in April 2019 3rd layer Project Annexe, relates to LBNF/DUNE and is general and non-legally binding (to be signed fall 2019) CJD expected to be UK Agency Technical Coordinator 4th layer Project Planning Document (and MoUs) Technical description of the in-kind-contribution: deliverables, project activities, schedule and key milestones Sign-off in UK by Geddes (STFC Technology Director of National Laboratories)? 2 Outline UK In-Kind-Contributions for LBNF

target At least one viable prototype and one 1.2 MW capable helium cooled graphite neutrino target system that meets the requirements of the Beam Interface Working Group specification [ref] as far as is realistically achievable and is compatible with the LBNF magnetic Horn A. Short baffle collimator (so-called bafflette) integrated into the upstream of the target that permits beam-based alignment using low intensity horizontal and verical beam scans. Full Intensity Beam Position monitor (so-called Hylen monitor) integrated into the upstream of the target excluding the anticipated beryllium components Target physical alignment, mounting and interface system with Horn A Target exchange system to permit failed targets to be replaced in a shielded Work Cell Design and the specification of the associated helium cooling system for the provided target system (above); Instrumented baffle/collimator; Master-slave manipulator system (one pair) that can be installed in the Work Cell to operate the target exchange system In addition to the above, as the STFC funding envelope permits, STFC may also contribute: Target helium cooling system key components (e.g. heat exchanger(s)) Ongoing Maintenance and Operations of UK contributions including replacements Chris Densham 3

LBNF-UK target Project Phases Structured to maximise what UK can deliver to project within fixed funding envelope (including contingency) and funding profile outlined in UK Business Case. Phase 0 & Phase 1: April 2018 - March 2022 Preliminary design and specification of UK deliverables for Phase 2 Detailed cost estimates and schedule for supply of UK deliverables Finalise Scope of Work (via Project Planning Document) for Phase 2 deliverables Phase 2: April 2022 March 2026 Detailed design, manufacture, supply, installation and commissioning Chris Densham 4 LBNF-UK target governance & oversight 1st LBNF target Oversight Committee convened by STFC Programmes Directorate (PD) on 25th June 2019 Documents submitted by LBNF-UK target project team 1 month prior to meeting LBNF Targets Assurance Review and Quality Audit

(50 pages) provided after meeting OsC feedback report received 16th July UK government department BEIS Gateway 2 review anticipated fall 2019 Next LBNF target OsC to be scheduled before GW2 review (Sept/Oct) Chris Densham 5 Summary of Feedback from 1st Oversight Committee OFFICIAL SENSITIVE ACTION: The Collaboration is to provide sub-project high-level milestones and deliverables with clearly defined acceptance criteria for the next OsC meeting ACTION: The collaboration is to review all sub-project milestones and deliverables to establish clearly defined acceptance criteria for the next OsC meeting ACTION: The Collaboration is to lay out a process through which it is engaging with the US, indicating the degree of engagement and influence The OsC and PD informed the Collaboration that installation and commissioning costs associated with the sub-project would be funded from the existing BEIS allocation to the sub-project, and that there was

no scope for further grant awards to this end. The OsC noted that due to external factors, the proposed 2026 sub-project end date had slipped to 2029. The OsC advised the Collaboration to plan accordingly in preparation for future grant proposals. Chris Densham 6 Summary of Feedback from 1st Oversight Committee (contd) The OsC noted that LBNF DUNE sub-projects Memorandums of Understanding were yet to be completed but, were in draft and close to being agreed. Whilst financial commitments from PD were anticipated and understood in terms of the sub-projects costs and a future period of Maintenance and Operations, clarification should be sought regarding the potential assumption that PD fund the annual/regular replacement of targets before formally agreeing to this commitment, as this is not currently budgeted. ACTION: The Collaboration is to provide clarification regarding future annual/regular costs regarding target replacement/provision before formally agreeing to this commitment

Chris Densham 7 Summary of Feedback from 1st Oversight Committee (contd) ACTION: The Collaboration is to provide a timeline for the three target options design, optimisation, and prototyping period, with decision points, to the next OsC meeting ACTION: The OsC (via STFC PD) would like to be informed of the outcome of the target selection meeting at least one month ahead of the next OsC meeting, in order to understand if a deliverable design has been agreed ACTION: Following Julys target selection meeting, the Collaboration is to provide an assessment of resource requirements comparing, at a minimum, (i) the current scenario of design, optimisation, and prototyping of the three target options and, (ii) the

pragmatic focussing scenario of design, optimisation, and prototyping of one target option (once known), to the next OsC meeting ACTION: The collaboration is to elaborate on the rationale for, and extent of, prototyping the target option(s), primarily to comprehend if the timeline allows for it, what the success criteria of the exercise are, and whether or not it would ultimately be a working UK Chris Densham 8 deliverable to the US Our starting point: Helium Cooled T2K Target Target installation in magnetic horn using exchanger and manipulator system Chris Densham 9

Helium cooled LBNF target schematic Bafflette to protect downstream6 elements from halo and miss-steered beam 10 +2mmmm Horn Current Stripline Comparison: T2K vs LBNF T2mmK Horn 1 Radial current equalisation LBNF Horn 1 starting point Longitudinal current equalisation LBNF starting point

difficult for target integration & remote handling Has progressed to more T2K-like 11 Screenshot of a bi-weekly Technical Coordination Meeting Target concept: proposed options 1: Single 2.2m long target with remote-docking downstream support 3: Single intermediate length target supported as a simple cantilever 2: Two ~1m long cantilever targets, one inserted at either end of horn Chris Densham 13 Target Concept Selection Criteria (draft from

October 2018 meeting) 1 Physics performance 2 Engineering performance 3 Impact on other systems 4 Cost 5 Schedule 6 Risk

Instantaneous physics performance Upgradeability to 2.4 MW Flexibility re optimisation (materials, beam size etc) Compatibility with beam alignment (hadron vs muon?) Safety factor = f(stress, temperature) Lifetime, resilience to radiation damage Resilience to off-normal conditions Resilience to beam trips Potential for diagnostics Impact on horn/stripline design Ease of integration with horn Ease/reliability of alignment with horn axis Impact on services/plant Ease of remote handling/disposal Impact on TS design Impact on absorber design Cost & resource for design/prototyping Cost & resource for manufacture Cost of RH equipment Disposal cost Time to design Time to prototype Time to manufacture Schedule impact on other systems Design complexity

Ease of manufacture Remote handling complexity Departure from known technology Schedule risk ES&H / ALARA issues Outline of UK presentations Weds 10:00 11:00 15:30 16:30 Thurs 09:00 10:30 15:00 16:00 Physics performance Target/horn A interface - Outline comparison of design complexity Cantilever target length vs robustness Beam-based alignment issues

John Back Joe ODell Engineering performance - Heat loads (from FLUKA c/o JB, TD, MDF) - Thermal management (CFX) - Structural assessment (ANSYS) Remote Handling Comparison of time and risk for operations Project and Operations Impacts - Cost and Schedule Implications - Failure Modes Effects Analysis Summary of Challenges - Key Design & Manufacturing Issues - Key Operations issues - Key Remote Maintenance Issues Dan Wilcox Chris Densham Peter Loveridge Chris Densham/Jim Hylen Eric Harvey-Fishenden

Peter Loveridge Peter Loveridge 15 Extra material Chris Densham 16 Upstream & downstream target temperatures Considerable work needed to balance thermal & mechanical requirements of different options E.g. need sufficient cooling of container walls & windows without excessive helium pressure or pressure drop Chris Densham

17 Target Exchange Procedures 2.2m Target 2x 1m Targets 18 1.5m Target Concept Comparison Procedures for complete target system exchange have been drafted for each concept Each operation assigned

an estimated time and risk (based on consequence and likelihood) Comparisons then drawn up No. operations, combined risk of operations, total time taken for operations Currently in progress to contribute to target concept selection in July Option 2mm.2mmm Target Double Target 1.5m Target 19 No. Operations

Risk Replacement Time (hrs) Phase 0 and Phase I (2018-2022) Phase 0 and Phase I comprise this funded project Design, prototyping, and costing of Phase II hardware deliverables UK / US schedule integration efforts progressing well

Have some further freedom to request US milestone adjustments prior to their CD2 baseline (expected Summer 2020). Target/Baffle/Helium System US milestones now shown in our Gantt (hollow diamonds) Currently working on schedule integration for remote handling system 20 Chris Densham 21 Chris Densham

22 Phase II (2022-2026) Envisaged to continue on directly from present Phase I project Procurement, manufacture and supply of all hardware contributions Target build is on critical path Working with Fermilab on Phase II milestones in advance of US CD2 project baseline 23

Chris Densham 24 Chris Densham 25 US Tier 5 milestones relating to the UK project T5 Project Integration Milestones LBNF Project Milestone Planned Date Ref. UK Project Plan Status Target Preliminary Design Start 01-Jul-19

M1.2, Task 1.2.2 On track Target Preliminary Prototyping Start 30-Jan-20 Task 1.2.4 On track Target Preliminary Design Complete 17-Nov-20 M1.3 On track Target Final Design Start 18-Nov-20 Task 1.2.5

On track Target Preliminary Prototyping Complete 17-Aug-21 Task 1.2.4 On track Target Final Design Complete 13-May-22 M1.4 On track Baffle Preliminary Design Start 25-Apr-19 Task 1.3.2

Complete Baffle Preliminary Design Complete 10-Sep-20 M1.5 On track Baffle Final Design Start 11-Sep-20 Task 1.3.3 On track Baffle Final Design Complete 14-Dec-21 M1.6 On track

He System Preliminary Design Start 15-Oct-19 Task 3.1.2 On track He System Preliminary Design Complete 13-Oct-20 M3.1 On track He System Final Design Start 14-Oct-20 Task 3.1.3 On track

He System Preliminary Design Review Complete 20-Oct-20 M3.1 On track He System Final Design Complete 12-Oct-21 M3.2 On track Target Baffle Helium System Chris Densham 26

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