Machine-Independent Virtual Memory Management for Paged ...
Machine-Independent Virtual Memory Management for Paged Uniprocessor and Multiprocessor Architectures Jordan Acedera Ishmael Davis Justin Augspurger Karl Banks Introduction Many OS do not have VM support Mach goals: Exploit hardware/software relationship Portability
Handling of page faults Mach extends UNIX support Compatibility Compatibility Mach runs on the following systems: VAX processors IBM RT PC SUN 3 Encore Multimax Sequent Balance 21000 Mach Design Basic abstractions
Task Thread Port Message Memory Object Mach Design Basic Operations Allocate memory Deallocate memory Set protection status Specify inheritance Create/Manage memory objects Limits of Mach Design
Mach Design The Implementation of Mach Virtual Memory Presented by: Karl Banks Data Structures Resident page table: keeps track of Mach pages residing in main memory (machine independent) Address map: a doubly linked list of map entries, each of which maps a range of virtual addresses to a region of a memory object Memory object: a unit of backing storage
such as a disk file or a swap area Pmap: the memory-mapping data structure used by the hardware (machine dependent) Pager Managing task; one associated with each memory object Handles page faults and page-out requests outside of the kernel If kernel sends pageout request to a user-level pager, it can decide which page to swap out If pager is uncooperative, default pager will be invoked to perform the necessary pageout Mach Implementation Diagram
Virtual address space of a process Default Pager Swap area External Pager File System Sharing Memory: Copy-on-Write
Case: tasks only read Supports memory-sharing across tasks Sharing Memory: Copy-on-Write Case: write copied data New page allocated only to writing task Shadow object created to hold modified pages Sharing Memory: Shadow Objects Collects modified pages resulting from copy-onwrite page faults Initially empty with pointer to its shadowed object Only contains modified pages, relies on original object for rest Can create chain of shadow objects
System proceeds through list until page is found Complexity handled by garbage collection Sharing Memory: Read/Write Data structure for copy-on-write not appropriate (read/write sharing could involve mapping several memory objects) Level of indirection needed for a shared object Sharing Memory: Sharing Maps Identical to address map, points to shared object Address maps point to sharing maps in addition to memory objects Map operations are then applied simply to
sharing map Sharing maps can be split and merged, thus no need to reference others Virtual Memory Management Part 2 Jordan Acedera Karl Banks Ishmael Davis Justin Augspurger Porting Mach
First installed on VAX architecture machines By May 1986 it was available for use IBM RT PC, SUN 3, Sequent Balance, and Encore MultiMAX machines. A year later there were 75 IBM RT PCs running Mach Porting Mach
All 4 machine types took about the same time to complete the porting process Most time spent was debugging the compilers and device drivers Estimated time was about 3 weeks for the pmap module implementation Large part of that time was spent understanding the code Assessing Various Memory Management Architectures
Mach does not need the hardware data structure to manage virtual memory Mach Need malleable TLB, with little code needed written for the pmap Pmap module will manipulate the hardware defined in-memory structures, which will
control the state of the internal MMU TLB. Though this is true, each hardware architecture has had issues with both the uni and multi processors. Uniprocessor Issues Mach on the VAX
Problem In theory a 2Gb address space is allocated to a process not practical - A large amount of space needed linear page table (8 MB) UNIX Page tables in physical memory
Addresses only get 8, 16, or 64MB per process Uniprocessor Issues VAX VMS Pageable tables in the kernels virtual address space. Mach on the VAX
Page tables kept in physical memory Only constructs the parts needed to map the virtual to real address for the pages currently being used. Uniprocessor Issues IBM RT PC Uses a single inverted page (not per-task table)
Describes mapping for the addresses Uses the hashing function for the virtual address translation (allows a full 4GB address space) Mach on IBM RT PC
Reduced memory requirements benefits Simplified page table requirements Only allows one mapping for each physical page (can cause page faults when sharing) Uniprocessor Issues SUN 3 Segments and page tables are used for the address maps (up to 256 MB each)
Helps with implementing spares addressing Only 8 contexts can exist at one time Mach on the SUN 3 SUN 3 had an issue with display memory addressable as high physical memory. The Mach OS handled the issue with machine
dependent code Uniprocessor Issues Encore Multimax and Sequent Balance Both Machines used the National 32082 MMU, which had problems Only 16 MB of VM can be addressed per page
table Only 32 MB of physical memory can be addressed. A read-modify-write fault reported as a read fault Mach depended on correct faults being handled This was taken care of with the next MMU National 32382
Multiprocessor Issues None of the multiprocessors running Mach supported TLB consistency To guarantee consistency, the kernel will have to know which processors have the old mapping in the TLB and make it flush Unfortunately its impossible to reference or modify a TLB remotely or any of the multi processors running Mach
Multiprocessor Issues 3 solutions 1 interrupt all CPUs using a shared portion of an address and flush their buffers 2 hold on map changing until all CPUs have been flushed using a timer interrupt
When a change is critical When mappings need to be removed from the hardware address maps 3 allow temp inconsistency Acceptable because the operation semantics do not need to be simultaneous Integrating Loosely-coupled and Tightlycoupled Systems
Difficulties in building a universal VM model different address translation hardware different shared memory access between multiple CPUs fully shared/uniform access time (Encore MultiMax, Sequent Balance) shared/non-uniform access time (BBN Butterfly, IBM RP3) non-shared, message-based (Intel Hypercube)
Mach is ported only for uniform shared memory (tightlycoupled) multiprocessor systems Mach does contain mechanisms for loosely-coupled multiprocessor systems. Measuring VM Performance Mach performance is favored
Measuring VM Performance Program compiling, Compiling Mach kernel Mach performance is favored Relations to Previous Work Mach's VM functionality derives from earlier OS
Accent and/or Multics Virtual space segment creation corresponding with files and other permanent data Efficient, large VM transfers between protected address spaces Apollo's Aegis, IBM's System/38, CMU's Hydra Memory mapped objects Sequent's Dynix, Encore's Umax Shared VM systems for multiprocessors
Relations to Previous Work Mach differs in its sophisticated VM features not tied to a specific hardware base Mach differs in its ability to additionally work in a distributed environment Conclusion
Growth of portable software and use of more sophisticated VM mechanisms lead to a need for a less intimate relationship between memory architecture and software Mach shows possibilities of Portable VM management with few reliances on system hardware VM management without negative performance impact
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