Lymph System - Georgia Highlands College

Lymph System - Georgia Highlands College

Chapter 15 Specific Immunity and Immunization Immune Responses Applications of the Immune Response A. Vaccination the practice of deliberately stimulating the immune system in order to protect individuals against a disease 1. Edward Jenner developed the first official

smallpox variolation technique using cowpox virus 2. Pasteur used the word vaccination from the Latin word vacca meaning cow Immune Responses 3. It is possible for a portion of a population to become immune to a disease, either through natural immunity or vaccination

A) Herd immunity the inability of an infection to spread within a population due to the lack of susceptible hosts B. Types of Immunity 1. Based on 2 criteria Immune Responses A) How the person acquired the antigen/antibodies

1) Naturally acquired acquisition through normal events 2) Artificially acquired acquisition via nonnatural means Immune Responses B) Where the antibodies are produced 1) Active immunity the immunized individual makes their own antibodies 2) Passive immunity the immunized

individual did not make the antibodies Immune Responses C. Examples of Immunity 1. Naturally acquired-active immunity natural exposure to an antigen causes the person to produce their own antibodies A) Ex. getting over chickenpox

Immune Responses 2. Naturally acquired-passive immunity natural activities provide the individual with antibodies that someone else made after natural exposure to the antigen A) Ex. antibodies transferred from mother to child via breast milk or across the placenta

Immune Responses 3. Artificially acquired-active immunity deliberate exposure to the antigen via an injection causes the person to make their own antibodies to the antigen A) Ex. immunization of children for measles Immune Responses

4. Artificially acquired-passive immunity deliberate introduction of antibodies made by some other individual into the body of the patient A) Ex. RhoGAM & antivenom Immune Responses D. Vaccines 1. Vaccine a preparation of living or

inactivated (dead) microorganisms, viruses, or their components used to induce active immunity 2. Requirements of an effective vaccine A) Safe B) Few side effects Immune Responses C) Provide lasting immunity against a specific

illness by inducing antibodies, immune cells, or both D) Low cost E) Stable with a long shelf life F) Easy to administer Immune Responses 3. Types of vaccines A) Attenuated vaccines a weakened form of

the disease-causing agent (alive) 1) It is generally unable to cause disease but can still induce an immune response 2) Attenuated strains typically produce an infection with undetectable/mild symptoms 3) Often only a single dose is generally needed to induce long-lasting immunity Immune Responses

4) Can be spread from an immunized individual to non-immunized people, inadvertently immunizing the contacts a) Attenuated strains can cross the placenta and can be passed in breast milk 5) Because they can spread, they have the potential of causing disease in immunosuppressed people 6) Some can revert or mutate back into the

disease-causing form Immune Responses 7) Examples include tuberculosis, MMR, oral polio, chickenpox, and flu mist B) Inactivated vaccines forms that are unable to replicate but still cause an immune response (dead) 1) They cannot cause infection, revert to

dangerous forms, or be passed on to others Immune Responses 2) The magnitude of the immune response by inactivated vaccines is very limited a) Most require multiple exposures 3) Many inactivated vaccines contain an adjuvant a substance that enhances the

immune response to the antigen a) Examples include aluminum phosphate and aluminum hydroxide Immune Responses 4) There are two general categories of inactivated vaccines: a) Whole agents dead microorganisms or inactivated viruses; ex. flu shot, rabies,

and the injectable polio Immune Responses b) Fractions of the agent only pieces of the microorganism that can induce an immune response i) Examples: (a) Toxoid vaccine composed of inactivated toxins; ex. diphtheria and

tetanus (DTap & Tdap) vaccines Immune Responses (b) Subunit vaccine composed of key antigens of a virus; ex. Hepatitis B (c) Acellular vaccine composed of key antigens of a bacterium; ex. anthrax (d) Polysaccharide vaccine composed of the polysaccharides that make up the capsule

of certain microorganisms; ex. Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine Immunological Testing E. Principles of Immunological Testing 1. Serology use of serum antibodies to detect and identify antigens, or conversely, use of known antigens to detect antibodies 2. Titer is a measure of the amount of

specific antibody in serum A) Can determine a persons level of immunity to a specific antigen Immunological Testing B) Individuals exposed to an antigen for the first time usually do not have detectable antibodies in the blood serum until about 7-10 days after infection

3. Monoclonal antibodies (MABs) contain only one antibody with one specificity A) Commonly used in immunoassays Immunological Testing 4. Examples of Immunoassays A) Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) 1) Mechanism

a) Known antigen is attached to plastic wells. b) The serum to be tested is added and incubated. If antibodies are present, they will bind to the antigen. Immunological Testing c) To detect if antigen-antibody reactions have occurred, anti-HGG is added.

d) The anti-HGG reacts with any bound antibodies and the excess is washed away. e) A chromogen is added and a colored end product is produced if antibodies were present. Immunological Testing 2) Commonly used to detect HIV (followed by Western Blot)

3) Home pregnancy tests are ELISA tests B) Western Blot combination of electrophoresis with ELISA to separate and identify protein antigens in a mixture Immunological Testing C) Fluorescent Antibody Technique 1) Involves mixture of antigens, antibodies, and a fluorescent dye

a) Indirect method detects the presence of antibodies produced in response to an antigen; used to detect syphilis Immunological Testing i) A known antigen (ex. syphilis) is added to a sample of the patients serum along with a fluorescence-labeled antiglobulin antibody

(a) The antiglobulin antibody will only bind to an antibody bound to an antigen (i.e. it only binds if syphilis antibodies are present and bind to the added syphilis antigen) Immunological Testing ii) Binding of the antiglobulin antibody causes illumination of the fluorescent dye

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