Ling 390 - Intro to Linguistics - Winter 2005 Class 1 ...

Ling 390 - Intro to Linguistics - Winter 2005 Class 1 ...

Slide 1 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features Features are partly acoustic partly articulatory aspects of sounds but they are used for phonology so sometimes they are created to distinguish one sound from others or to group sounds together based on how they behave in phonology! Used best to show natural classes being affected by a process. Ch 4 - Features Slide 2 Ch4 Features

Sonority hierarchy sonorant is an acoustic feature (remember that non sonorants are called obstruents) less sonority Greater sonority Vowels Glides Liquids [+syllabic] Nasals

Obstruent s [syllabic] [consonantal] [+approximant] [+sonorant] [+consonantal] [approximant] [-sonorant] Slide 3 Ch 4 - Features

Ch4 Features Major class features [ syllabic] - sounds that can act as syllables vowels, and syllabic consonants (not glides) The center of a syllable is the most sonorous element and as you progress towards the edges of the syllable from the nucleus, the sonority decreases (this explains many phonotactic constraints found in languages as to what sequence consonant clusters can occur in though not 100%) Slide 4 Ch 4 - Features

Ch4 Features Major class features [ consonantal] - major obstruction in vocal tract obstruents, liquids, nasals (not h) (not glides) [ syllabic] - sounds that can act as syllables vowels, and syllabic consonants (not glides) [ sonorant] - singable sounds vowels, glides, liquids and nasals (even if voiceless) [ approximant] liquids, glides and vowels Slide 5

Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features Manner features [ continuant] sounds with free or nearly free airflow through oral cavity fricatives, liquids, glides and vowels (not stops (nasals included)) [ delayed release] [ DR] the release of a stop is slowed to create a fricative] the release of a stop is slowed to create a fricative affricates only (sometimes fricatives included) [ nasal] sounds produced with a lowered velum (through nasal passage) nasal stops and nasalized vowels [ lateral] sounds produced air flowing over sides of tongue only varieties of l are [+ lateral] Also [+trill] and [+tap] Ch 4 - Features

Slide 6 Ch4 Features Vowel features Front Central [back] [+front ] Back [+back]

[front] Slide 7 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features You can download a feature spreadsheet at Bruce Hayes website here: http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/120a/ index.htm#features Also can get practice writing rules using features at website above! Slide 8 Ch 4 - Features

Ch4 Features Place o articulation features Different from other features only certain features apply to the 3 places For some, these are neither + or : they just are according to some (not our text) LABIAL sounds made with at least one lip COR] the release of a stop is slowed to create a fricativeONAL sounds made with tongue tip or blade raised (front of tongue) DOR] the release of a stop is slowed to create a fricativeSAL sounds made involving body of tongue Slide 9 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features Place o articulation features

LABIAL [ round] sounds produced by protruding the lips [+ round] is [w]; [ round] is [p, b, f, v] [ labiodental] lower lip to upper teeth he uses this feature to distinguish bilabial from labiodental fricatives (others use [strident] or [distributed] but Hayes argues that these features group the labiodentals into a natural class with other [+strident] or [-distributed] sounds which doesnt have any support in phonology) [f, v] = [+labiodental] Slide 10 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features

[ distributed] laminal (more of blade of tongue used for articulation) rather than apical (just the tongue tip). Distinguishes dentals and alveopalatals = [+distr] from alveolars = [-distr] [ lateral] lateral or not Slide 11 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features Place o articulation features DOR] the release of a stop is slowed to create a fricativeSAL (for vowels and some consonants) [ high] tongue body raised higher than a central position [+high] = velars and palatals and high vowels; [high] = uvulars and pharyngeals and non-high vowels

[ low] tongue body lowered lower than a central position low vowels are [+ low]; others are [ low]; [low] = all consonants except pharyngeals [ back] produced with tongue body behind palatal region [+ back] backed velars, uvulars and pharyngeals and back vowels are [+ back]; palatals and fronted/central velars and front vowels not [ front] produced with tongue body in front of palatal region [+ front] [+front] = fronted velars and palatals; [front] = other velars, uvulars and pharyngeals Slide 12 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features

Place o articulation features DOR] the release of a stop is slowed to create a fricativeSAL (for vowels and some consonants) [ tense] tense vowels are [+ tense]; lax vowels are [ tense] [ reduced] if the vowel is reduced, it is [+ reduced] (always for[] ) {this is not part of Hayes system but some use this} Slide 13 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features Ch 4 - Features Slide 14

Ch4 Features Consonants (C) LABIAL [+ high] COR] the release of a stop is slowed to create a fricativeONAL DOR] the release of a stop is slowed to create a fricativeSAL [ strident] [ round] [+ strident]

[+ back] [ back] [ anterior] [+ round] [+ anterior] Ch 4 - Features Slide 15 Ch4 Features Consonants (C)

LABIAL [+labiodental] [labiodental] Ch 4 - Features Slide 16 Ch4 Features COR] the release of a stop is slowed to create a fricativeONAL Consonants (C) DOR] the release of a stop is slowed to create a fricativeSAL [+ high] [ low] [+ front]

[ back] [+ strident] [+ distributed] [ strident] [+ anterior] [ anterior] Ch 4 - Features Slide 17 COR] the release of a stop is slowed to create a fricativeONAL

Ch4 Features DOR] the release of a stop is slowed to create a fricativeSAL [+front] [front] [high] [+back] [+high] [back] Glottals are: [labial] [coronal] [dorsal] [low] [+low]

Slide 18 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features Place o articulation features Secondary articulations Palatalization add [+dorsal, +high, -low, +front, -back] Velarization add [+dorsal, +high, -low, -front, +back] Pharyngealization - add [+dorsal, -high, +low, -front, +back] Labialization - add [+labial, +round] Slide 19

Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features Place o articulation features Place as a group concept Possible when showing a rule to use just [place i] to indicate that the place of articulation and all of the features involved with that place are included. See p. 89 Slide 20 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features

Laryngeal features [ voice] vocal folds vibrating or not [ spread glottis] [ SG] aspirated sounds, [h] and breathy vowels are [+ SG] [ constricted glottis] [ CG] sounds made with a closed glottis are [+ CG] In English, only is [+ CG], but ejectives are too and preglottalized stops [ implosive] implosive sounds are [+implosive] Slide 21 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features Zero features If a feature is not relevant for a sound (usually due to place of articulation), then we can use 0 instead of +/- for that feature which just means not relevant

Slide 22 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features Features and rules He discusses when to use features and when to use IPA symbols Basically, an IPA symbol is a substitute for feature matrix and best used when only one sound is involved like Indonesian velar nasal deletion p. 92 You should use features when the general process affects a natural class rather than an individual sound!! Slide 23

Ch 4 - Features Phonology Rule annotation: A B / X __ Y A comes B in the environment between X and Y Rule annotation for deletion: A / X __ Y A is deleted in the environment between X and Y Rule annotation for epenthesis: A / X __ Y A is epenthesized (added) in the environment between X and Y

Ch 4 - Features Slide 24 Phonology Practice Convert this statement into a rule: Voiced oral stops become voiceless at the beginning of words. sonorant continuant +voice -DR

[voice] / # ___ [b] [] / # __ Ch 4 - Features Slide 25 Phonology Practice Convert this rule into a statement: sonorant +continuant voice

[+voice] / consonantal +syllabic ___ consonantal +syllabic Ch 4 - Features

Slide 26 Phonology Practice Convert this rule into a statement: C +continuant +del rel +voice -sonorant [voice] / V __ V

Voiced fricatives become voiceless between vowels (intervocalically) Ch 4 - Features Slide 27 Phonology Practice Convert this rule into a statement: C +cont +del rel voice

[+SG] / # __ Voiceless fricatives become aspirated word initially Slide 28 Ch 4 - Features Phonology Practice Slide 29 Ch 4 - Features

Phonology Practice Ch 4 - Features Slide 30 Phonology Practice Write a rule for the Spanish data and assume this rule applies to all voiced stops -del rel +voice -sonorant [+continuant] /

consonantal +syllabic ___ consonantal +syllabic Slide 31 Ch 4 - Features Phonology Practice Look at Spanish handout and think about it in terms of features

Slide 32 Ch 4 - Features Phonology Practice Using just English consonant phonemes, use features to come up with natural classes. Slide 33 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features Slide 34

Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features Slide 35 Ch 4 - Features Ch4 Features Consider the following data from Mokilese Can you identify complementary distribution? If so, write a rule in feature to capture the overall process (not specific rules for specific sounds but for natural classes)

Ch 4 - Features Slide 36 Ch4 Features Consider the following data from Mokilese High vowels become voiceless between voiceless consonants +syllabic +dorsal +high [voice]

/ - sonorant - voice ___ - sonorant - voice

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