Lets talk about protection Childhood Vaccination Presentation for healthcare practitioners and other professionals involved in immunisation services European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) Content overview 1. 2. 3. 4. Why do we vaccinate children? How do vaccines work? Vaccine safety Resources Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 2 Content overview 1.
2. 3. 4. Why do we vaccinate children? How do vaccines work? Vaccine safety Resources 1. Why do we vaccinate children? Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 3 1. Why do we vaccinate children? Vaccination: One of the great public health achievements of the 20th century Smallpox eradicated worldwide since 1979 Polio eliminated from most parts of the world High vaccination rates = low disease rates Over half of the (30%) drop in child mortality since 1990 is attributable to immunization.
Dr Margaret Chan, Director-General, World Health Organization Photo: ECDC / Tibor Bujdos 1. Why do we vaccinate children? Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 4 Vaccines save lives and reduce suffering Vaccines prevent childhood diseases that can cause permanent disability or even death. Diphtheria kills 1 in every 10 people who get it, even with treatment. 90 out of 100 babies born to mothers who had rubella shortly before getting pregnant or while pregnant will suffer from congenital rubella syndrome. Meningococcal disease
kills 1 in 10 people, even with prompt diagnosis and treatment. 30 out of 100 persons with measles develop one or more complications. Vaccines are safe, while many of the diseases they prevent have no effective treatments and 1. Why do we vaccinate children? Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 5 vaccines protect Decrease in average number of cases per year (during different decades) of vaccine preventable diseases (example Hungary)
50000 1000 40000 Number of cases Number of cases 800 600 400 200 30000 20000 10000
Mumps Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 6 Vaccines protect everyone Example Measles Directly the baby/child vaccinated 1. Why do we vaccinate children? Indirectly other babies, children and adults who are vulnerable to disease, e.g. the elderly, those with weak immune systems, those that due to medical reasons cannot be vaccinated. Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 7 Community immunity When enough people (blue dots) in a community are immune to an infectious
disease (through vaccination and/or prior illness), they can protect those who are not yet vaccinated (yellow dots) from those who are infectious (red dots). When groups of unvaccinated people build up and are in close proximity, community immunity doesnt work and the disease spreads. Community immunity is also referred to as herd immunity. 1. Why do we vaccinate children? Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 8 Content overview 1. 2. 3. 4. Why do we vaccinate children?
How do vaccines work? Vaccine safety Resources Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 9 Vaccines 1. Vaccines contain either a very weakened form of the virus or bacterium that causes a disease, or a small part of it. 2. When the body detects the contents of the vaccine, its immune system will produce the antibodies required to fight off infection and eliminate the disease-causing virus/bacterium. 3. Later if a person comes into contact with the virus/bacterium, her/his immune system will recognise it and protect the person by producing the right antibodies. 2. How do vaccines work? Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 10 There are two types of vaccines
1. Live attenuated Produced in a laboratory by modifying a disease-producing bacteria or virus. Able to replicate and produce immunity but without causing illness, e.g. MMR, yellow fever, and varicella vaccines. 2. Inactivated Inactivated vaccines are composed of either whole bacteria or viruses, or a fraction of either with a protein or polysaccharide base. e.g. influenza, pertussis. Protein-based vaccines contain toxoids (inactivated bacterial toxins) such as tetanus. Polysaccharide-based vaccines are composed of pure cell-wall polysaccharide from a bacteria., e.g. pneumococcal, meningococcal. Conjugate polysaccharide vaccines (chemically linked to a protein) are more potent, e.g. Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib).
2. How do vaccines work? Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 11 Vaccine schedules Country specific schedules available on ECDC website 2. How do vaccines work? Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 12 Example Swedish vaccine schedule for children 2. How do vaccines work? Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 13 Diseases versus side effects of vaccination (examples) Disease Diphtheria Effects of the disease
Severe sore throat, marked weakness, nerve damage, heart failure. Death in 10% of cases. Possible side effects of the vaccine DTaP vaccine: 20% of infants have local redness, pain; less than 5% have fever; more redness and swelling occurs with booster at 46 years of age. Tetanus Toxin affects nerve endings leading to painful muscle spasms and seizures. Severe spasms of cough lasting 36 weeks, pneumonia, convulsions. Brain damage or death in 1 of every 400 infants. See above as for DTaP. Local redness and pain common with adult booster. See above as for DTaP. The risk of brain damage after pertussis vaccine is too small, if any, to be measured. Muscle paralysis in 1 out of 200 persons infected with polio. Death in severe cases.
Meningitis kills in 5% of cases and leads to brain damage and deafness in 1015% of survivors. Severe bronchitis, high fever, rash for 714 days; death in 1 per 1 000 cases; encephalitis in 1 per 1 000 cases. IPV: No risk of disease from vaccine. Fever, swollen salivary glands. No visible illness in more than 50% of cases; encephalitis in 1 per 200 cases; deafness in 5 per 100 000 cases. See MMR above. Pertussis Polio Hib Measles Mumps 2. How do vaccines work?
Given in combination with DTaP/IPV: see above for side effects. Given combined with mumps and rubella vaccines (MMR) 510% have fever with or without rash 810 days after vaccine. No risk of disease from vaccine. Risk of encephalitis 1 case per 1 million doses. Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 14 Example Measles A serious disease Measles is highly infectious and can be severe. 30 % of cases develop complications. Complications from measles infection 7 to 9 out of 100 children develop ear infection, which can result in hearing loss. Eye disorders, such as destruction of the cornea (outer layer of eyeball) may lead to blindness. This condition affects, in particular, malnourished children and is linked to vitamin A
deficiency. 2. How do vaccines work? 8 out of 100 patients report diarrhoea. A rare but fatal brain complication known as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), can occur several years after measles. 1 to 6 out of every 100 patients suffer from pneumonia. This is the most common cause of death from measles in young children. 1 out of 4 people who get measles will need hospitalization. 1 in every 1 000 patients develop acute encephalitis (swelling of the brain). This can lead to convulsions and leave a
child deaf or with mental disability. Up to 1 in 1 000 measles patients die as a result of the disease. Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 15 Measles vaccines The vaccine Allergic reaction to neomycin, gelatin, or a previous dose of the vaccine Live, but weakened virus Given with mumps and rubella vaccines Certain immune system disorders as MMR or with varicella in addition as Pregnancy MMR-V 2 doses required, since about 5% of vaccinated children remain Precautions unprotected after first dose Delay vaccine for moderate to severe illness Side effects
Mild side effects: fever (in 5 10 % of children) or rash (in 2 % of children) Severe adverse events rare: risk of encephalitis is less than 1 case per one million doses No evidence of links to other diseases/ disorders (such as autism, developmental delay, Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis) Contraindications 2. How do vaccines work? Delay vaccine for 3 months or more for anyone who has received blood products, as the vaccine may not work Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 16 When to avoid vaccines A history of anaphylactic or other serious allergic reaction after
receiving a vaccine is a contraindication to further doses of that vaccine People with certain immune system disorders should not be given live vaccines (e.g. measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, oral typhoid) Avoid live vaccines during pregnancy, except when expected benefits to mother and baby outweigh risk. 2. How do vaccines work? Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 17 Content overview 1. 2. 3. 4. Why do we vaccinate children? How do vaccines work? Vaccine safety
Resources Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 18 How are vaccines approved for use in EU Member States? Rigorous procedures before a new vaccine is approved and marketed Marketing authorisation only after evaluation during product development and clinical trials Quality Safety Efficacy Procedures for registration or licencing of pharmaceutical products Centralised: By European Medicines Agency (EMA) Mutual recognition procedure: Collection of national marketing authorisations National procedures: For products licensed in one single country 3. Vaccine safety
Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 19 Monitoring vaccine safety Vaccines are monitored after release for adverse events Adverse events: Negative health effects occurring after immunisation that may or may not be related to the vaccine. Mild adverse events, such as fever and swelling at the injection site, are common. More serious reactions are rare. Post-marketing surveillance of adverse events: The system for reporting and reviewing adverse events once a vaccine has been approved for use. Information reaches the regulatory authorities and Public Health Agency of the country through doctors and nurses reporting to health officials. Photo: ECDC / Darja Stundlova 3. Vaccine safety Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 20
Content overview 1. 2. 3. 4. Why do we vaccinate children? How do vaccines work? Vaccine safety Resources Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 21 Assessing vaccine information on the Internet When looking at health-related information on the internet, it can be difficult to judge the quality and accuracy of information found. Check that the website: Informs about ownership, purpose, authors, and organisations that support it. Is transparent about the sources of funding and informs about data protection.
Provides information based on scientific research and mention sources of information (including references and links). Directs you to additional information sources and refers to well-recognised public health organisations and professional bodies. Credible websites usually present both the benefits and risks of vaccination. 4. Resources Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 22 Web resources ECDC webpage with information on immunisation ecdc.europa.eu/en/healthtopics/immunisation/pages/index.aspx World Health Organization (WHO) www.who.int/topics/immunization/en World Health Organisation (WHO) Lists of reviewed vaccination websites that meet good information practices criteria www.who.int/vaccine_safety/initiative/
communication/network/approved_vaccine_safety_website/en 4. Resources Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 23 Thank you! For more information: www.ecdc.europa.eu Lets talk about protection Childhood vaccination | 24
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