Leon Trotsky HSC Modern History Personalities in the Twentieth Century Dr Michael Molkentin Shellharbour Anglican College / University of New South Wales Canberra Do you want this PowerPoint? www.michaelmolkentin.com/resources/ Outline of lecture 1. The syllabus 2. The examination 3. Learning the details of Trotskys life 4. Evaluating Trotsky's life 5. Historiography
Principal focus: Through the study of Leon Trotsky, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history. Students learn to: ask relevant historical questions locate, select and organise information from different types of sources, including ICT, to describe and analyse relevant features and issues assess the impact of the personality on twentieth-century history analyse the contribution of the personality to the period in which they lived account for and assess differing perspectives and interpretations of the personality evaluate the usefulness and reliability of sources present the findings of investigations on aspects of the personality, analysing and synthesising information from different types of sources communicate an understanding of relevant concepts, features and issues using appropriate and well-structured oral and/or written and/or multimedia forms including ICT. 1 Historical context politics in pre-revolutionary Russia
the 1917 revolution establishment of the Bolshevik/Communist state power struggle with Stalin 2 Background family background and education development of political ideals 3 Rise to prominence emerging political role 19051917 role in 1917 revolution 4 Significance and evaluation role as Commissar for Foreign Affairs role as Commissar for War power struggle following the death of Lenin expulsion from the Communist Party life and activities in exile evaluation: for example practical revolutionary, nave idealist?
The Examination Section 3 Two questions do both Applicable to all 27 personality options 45 minutes Question A (10 marks) - descriptive Question B (15 marks) evaluative 2015 Modern History HSC Examination Section 3 Questions Question A (10 marks) Allow 17 minutes for this section (2-3 mins planning?) Aim to write c. 400 words All questions since 2006: Describe or Outline Describe: provide characteristics and features Outline: Sketch in general terms; indicate the main features of
Forget essay structure- no introduction or conclusion (subheadings OK) Write three or four paragraphs, use them to organise the detail of Trotskys life into themes Question A (10 marks) (a) Describe THREE significant factors which resulted in the prominence of the personality you have studied. (2012 HSC) Paragraph 1: Trotskys role in the 1905 revolution Paragraph 2: Trotskys writing on Marxism, 1906-1917 Paragraph 3: Trotksys role in the October 1917 Question A (10 marks) Key words on the marking criteria: detail and relevance BREADTH
Trotksys role in October 1917 Trotksys belief about worker involvement in contrast to Lenin Trotskys amends with Lenin and the Bolsheviks during 1917. Trotksys role in the Petersburg Soviet executive during the OctoberNovember general strikes Results and Prospects (1906) and its expression of the theory of permanent
revolution Trotskys work as a war correspondent in 1912-13 in the Balkans Trotskys role in the July Days and his continued disagreements with Lenin Trotsky and the MRC and seizure of power in October DEPTH Trotksys role in the Trotksys writing 1905 revolution between 1906-17 People
Places Dates (years) Organisations Titles Quotes (brief) 1 Historical context politics in pre-revolutionary Russia the 1917 revolution establishment of the Bolshevik/Communist state power struggle with Stalin 2 Background family background and education development of political ideals 3 Rise to prominence emerging political role 19051917 role in 1917 revolution 4 Significance and evaluation
role as Commissar for Foreign Affairs role as Commissar for War power struggle following the death of Lenin expulsion from the Communist Party life and activities in exile evaluation: for example practical revolutionary, nave idealist? Describe the personal background and the historical context of the personality you have studied. (2008) Describe THREE significant factors which resulted in the prominence
of the personality you have studied. (2012) Describe the significant events in the life of the personality you have studied. (10 marks) Question B (15 marks) Allow 28 minutes for this section (incl. 5 mins planning) Write c. 600 words Treat it as a mini-essay: Develop a thesis that answers the question include a brief introduction and conclusion Use the quotation provided in the question as the focus of your thesis engage with it in a sustained manner
To prepare make sure you have examples of both how Trotsky influenced his context, where he failed to do so and how his context influenced him. How Trotsky influenced his Where Trotsky failed to context influence his context Though not acting alone Trotksy influenced events in 1917 leading up to the revolution: Trotksy failed to achieve his Trotksys revolutionary internationalist goals as ideas were the product to Commissary for Foreign Affairs various influences in his at Brest-Litovsk in 1918.
early years. Eg: His relationship with The Bolshevik leadership the workers helped overruled his attempt to stall bridge the divide negotiations and signed a between the Bolsheviks peace treaty with Germany. and the Soviets. This was cemented when he was elected President of the Petrograd Soviet Role in MRC and planning of the October insurrection
Where Trotskys context influenced him His exposure to class inequality and peasant hardship on his family farm. Liberal ideology of the Spentzer family in Odessa Narodnik ideology of the Orchard Commune in Nikolayev Marxism of Aleksandra Sokolovskaya Details of Trotskys life
Details of Trotskys historical context (from 1. Historical context) 2. Background family background and education development of political ideals - politics in pre-revolutionary Russia 3 Rise to prominence emerging political role 19051917 role in 1917 revolution - the 1917 revolution 4
establishment of the Bolshevik/Communist state power struggle with Stalin Significance and evaluation role as Commissar for Foreign Affairs role as Commissar for War power struggle following the death of Lenin expulsion from the Communist Party life and activities in exile evaluation: for example practical revolutionary, nave idealist?
Politics in pre-revolutionary Russia (Yr 11 content) The reigns of Alexander II and Alexander III Liberal reforms (emancipation of the Serfs, Zemstovo reforms) Russification, Jewish policy (extension of the Pale of settlement) Assassination of AII; repression under AIII The development of reformist/revolutionary politics in Russia Populism Liberalism Marxism Industrialisation in Russia during 1890s and its social impacts Nicholas IIs ascension and his commitment to autocracy 2. Background family background and education
Jewishness Social class Education: Gromokla, Odessa, Nikolaev Relationships: parents, Spentzer Personality Marriage Trotskys My Life https:// www.marxists.org/archive/trotsk y/1930/mylife/1930-lif.pdf development of political ideals
Time with Spentzers, exposure to liberalism Orchard Commune and Franz Shvigovsky and the Narodniki Aleksandra Sokolovskaya and Marxism Imprisonment, exile, escape and encounters with Lenins work Early writing as The Pen and for Iskra RSDLP split, Trotsys criticism of Lenin in Our Political Tasks (1904) 3 Rise to prominence
emerging political role 19051917 Relationship with Bolshevik and Menshevik factions Relationship with Natalia Sedova Role in 1905 Petersburg Soviet and arrest Results and Prospects (1906) Permanent revolution Anticipated conflict with the peasantry Failed attempts to re-unify RSDLP, conflict with Lenin War correspondent in the Balkans, Western Front role in 1917 revolution
Arrival in Petrograd May 1917 July Days, voluntary arrest and siding with Bolsheviks President of Petrograd Soviet (bridge between Bolsheviks and Soviets) President of Military Revolutionary Council, co-ordination of October revolution 4. Significance and evaluation role as Commissar for Foreign Affairs Role at Brest-Litovsk, conflict with Central Committee role as Commissar for War Establishment of the Red Army, use of Military Specialists Trotskys train Crushing peasant uprisings War Communism and especially Labour Armies
Opposition to NEP and conflict with Central Committee power struggle following the death of Lenin Lenins testament Socialism in One Country vs Permanent Revolution Trotsky vs Stalin (strengths and weaknesses) 4. Significance and evaluation (continued) expulsion from the Communist Party The United Opposition (Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev) The Tenth Anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution- support for Trotsky Expulsion life and activities in exile Alma Ata (1927-29) European exile (1929-1936) My Life (1930) Mexico (1937-1940) The Revolution Betrayed (1937) The Fourth International
Assassination evaluation: for example practical revolutionary, nave idealist? 1. The impact of something in Trotskys life on him (2015) 2. The extent of Trotskys agency: Trotsky vs his context- which influenced which? (2009, 2010, 2014) 3. The nature of Trotskys impact (2012) 4. The extent of Trotskys impact (2005, 2011, 2013) 5. The ways in which historians (and others?) have interpreted Trotsky (2006, 2008) Historiography Three reasons you need to do some work on it: 1. It is one of the explicitly identified skills (account for and assess differing perspectives and interpretations of the personality) 2. Question B in the 2006 and 2008 papers 3. It can help you develop your own evaluation of Trotsky Historiography
What you dont need: To read full books on Trotsky To be able to name-drop historians throughout your response What can be helpful: Three distinct historical perspectives on Trotsky These could be three particular authors eg: Isaac Deutscher (Trotskyist) Richard Pipes (Cold War era Trotsky critic) Robert Service (recent, non-Trotskyist biographer) Historiography What can be helpful: Or broadly different approaches by era: Bolshevik era interpretations: Trotsky the revolutionary hero Stalinist era: Trotsky the revolutions wrecker Trotskyists: Trotsky as Lenins heir Cold War era: Trotsky just as bad as Stalin
Recent scholarship Historiography - strategies Wikipedia and review websites for book/author summaries The introduction and conclusion of books Podcasts, interviews with authors (Hitchens vs Service: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cuzXR-5w4Qk; Service on Trotsky: http://www.econtalk.org/archives/2010/07/robert_service.html) Literature reviews: Ken Webb, Leon Trotsky 1879-1940, Get Smart Education, Mona Vale, 2011, pp. 83-88. Ian D. Thatcher, Trotsky, Routledge, Milton Park, 2003, pp. 1-22. Michael Cox, Trotsky and his interpreters: or, will the real Leon Trotsky please stand up?, The Russian Review, vol. 51, no.1, January 1992, pp. 84-102. Questions?
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