Lecture 5: Winners and Losers Within Countries

Lecture 5: Winners and Losers Within Countries

Lecture 6: Factor Endowments Benjamin Graham Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham Reading Quiz (1) According to the Factor Endowment Theory: A) A nation will export a product that uses a locally abundant resource in its production B) A nation will import a product that uses a locally scarce resource in its production C) A nation will import a product that uses a locally abundant resource in its production and will export a product that uses a locally scarce resource in its production

D) Both A and B Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham Reading Quiz (2) If the U.S is abundant in human capital (skills) related to scientific/engineering talent, but unskilled labor is scare; and India has a relative abundance in unskilled labor but lacks the skills, then according to the factor-endowment theory:

a) the U.S will export large amounts of high-end electrical machinery and equipment b) India will export large amounts of high-end electrical machinery and equipment c) the U.S will export large amounts of apparel and toys d) India will import large amounts of apparel and toys. Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham Reading Quiz (3) According to Stolper/Samuelson: A. The demand curve moves left when a complementary

product increases in price B. When the price of a product increases, so does the income earned by owners of the factor of production used intensely to produce that product. C. Tariffs and quotas are substitutes -- i.e. they achieve very similar effects D. Factors of production decline in productivity according to the marginal rate of transformation Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham

Factor Endowments Theory It is efficient to make something when inputs are cheap Inputs are cheap when they are abundant So countries make a product efficiently when that product requires factors of production that are locally abundant Note: Abundance is relative, rather than absolute. Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham

Factor Endowments Theory Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham Who has what? What type of countries are capital abundant? Answer: Rich countries (especially small, scarcely populated ones) e.g. Lichtenstein, Denmark What type of countries are land abundant?

Answer: Big countries & natural-resource rich countries (particularly poor and scarcely populated ones) e.g. Mongolia, Sudan What type of countries are labor abundant? Populous countries (especially small, poor ones) e.g. Philippines, Bangladesh Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham Capital Stock per Worker in 1997

Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham Index of Manufacturing Wages (US = 100) Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham Question When a company hires a USC engineering major

to work as a product developer, it pays that graduate a wage. How should we think about that wage in terms of factors of production? A. Only as a payment for labor B. Only as the rental price of human capital C. As a payment for both labor and human capital Why does Russia have a comparative advantage producing wheat? A. Because they have abundant labor B. Because they have abundant land C. Because they have abundant capital

D. Because all factors of production are scarce there, making them efficient by necessity. E. Sputnik Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham Why does Bangladesh have a comparative advantage making T-Shirts? A. Because they have abundant labor B. Because they have abundant land

C. Because they have abundant capital D. A&B E. Because all factors of production are scarce there, making them efficient by necessity. Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham Recent changes Since 2012 Mexican wages have actually fallen,

Chinese wages have increased another 50% Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham What happens as wages (and wealth generally) rise in China? A. Labor becomes relatively more abundant B. Capital becomes relatively more abundant C. They gain a comparative advantage in more capitalintensive goods. D. B & C

Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham If wages (and wealth generally) continue to rise in China, what should we expect? A. They increase production of textiles (e.g. t-shirts) B. They start to do more R&D and less low-end manufacturing C. Agriculture becomes a larger share of the economy D. A, B & C

Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham Political Institutions: Why Politics is Most of This Story How do political institutions shape comparative advantage? Governments can invest in health (labor), education (human capital), and infrastructure (physical capital) Governments provide rule of law Creates comparative advantage in transactionintensive industries

Ex: Britains legal services industry Ex: Wall Street Talented people dont want to live in repressive states Scientists and intellectuals fled the Soviet Union for Europe and the US Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries Benjamin Graham Political Institutions Lecture 5: Winners/Losers Within Countries

Benjamin Graham Question Bangladesh currently has a comparative advantage producing textiles. They would prefer to move into producing electronics. What should government spending priorities be? Keep in mind that revenue is very limited and increasing spending overall is likely not really an option for any increase in spending you recommend, you would need to identify an area to target for cuts.

Areas to Consider: Education Health Pensions

Physical infrastructure (roads, ports, power, water, sewer) Military Police Judiciary Agricultural subsidies

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