ORIGINS Planet earth 4.6 bya The first life forms 3.5 bya The first eukaryotes 3.0bya The origin of an oxygen-rich atmosphere 2.1bya
The Mother of all questions 1. Not observable 2. Even simple life very complex LifeBoiled Down
4 Problems / Questions 1. How did organic molecules arise from non-organic materials? 2. How were organic monomers assembled into complex polymers? 3. How did the self-replicating molecules needed for inheritance arise? 4. How were the organic molecules packaged into membranes with an internal chemistry different from their surroundings?
1. How did organic molecules arise from non-organic materials? Miller & Urey (1950)
1. How did organic molecules arise from non-organic materials? From space?
2. How were organic monomers assembled into complex polymers? 2. How were organic monomers assembled into complex polymers?
2. How were organic monomers assembled into complex polymers? 3. How did self-replicating molecules needed for inheritance arise?
RNA World = Variation for Free! DNA VS. RNA
4. First membranes? All spontaneous processes proceed in the direction that increases entropy of the universe (entropy = a measure of the disorder in a system)
4. First membranes? ORDER FOR FREE! Lipids in water Bilayers form spontaneously! Why?
The First Membranes Order For Free! Lipids in water Initial State Final State
Lipids Free molecules (High S)
Fluid membrane (Intermediate S) Water Ice-like shells
(Low S) Free molecules (High S) Spontaneous biological order at the
expense of universal disorder! Other examples of entropydriven order self-assembly Self-folding of small polypeptides
TED Talks Lee CroninMaking Matter Come Alive How does he propose to define life? TED Talks Lee CroninMaking
Matter Come Alive How is Lee Cronins lab attempting to make matter come alive? What are some of the implications of his research? How does he propose to define life?
The Earliest Life was ProkaryoticHow Did Eukaryotes Evolve? The Origin of the Mitochondria
and Chloroplasts: Early 1900s Konstantin Merezhkovsky Chlorophyll bodiesbehave like independent organisms They are symbionts, not organs
The Origin of the Mitochondria and Chloroplasts: Early 1960s Lynn Margulis The Origin of Mitosing Eukaryotic Cells Convincingly developed the view that
chloroplasts and mitochondria have prokaryotic origins National Medal of Science, 1999 Theory of Endosymbiosis
Margulis Data Characteristic Size Ribosomes Membrane
DNA Eukaryote Prokaryote
Mitochondria Chloroplast Quick Side-Note
Another example of non-mendelian genetics! Margulis Data Mitochondria and Chloroplasts reproduce by binary fission! Total Independence?
Mitochondrial Genome Is the loss of genes unusual? NO! Ants and Mealybugs
Moranella bacteria inside a Tremblaya bacterium inside a Mealybug! Is the loss of genes unusual? NO!
Other Endosymbionts? Cilia and Flagella were once spirochete bacteria? Viral origin of the nucleus?
VAČNATCI Jitka Škrottová Obecná charakteristika rodí mláďata jako jiní savci mláďata se rodí ve velmi ranném stádiu vývoje - nedonošená ve vaku se krmí mlékem hmyzožravci, masožravci, býložravci obývají široké spektrum biomů - od pouště po deštné pralesy okolo 270...
Unit 9 METRIC MEASUREMENT UNITS * METRIC UNITS OF LINEAR MEASURE Based on powers of 10 Most frequently used units of length: kilometer meter centimeter millimeter * METRIC LINEAR UNITS The following list shows several units of linear measure and...
Organic Chemistry. We define organic chemistry . as the chemistry of compounds that contain both . carbon. and . hydrogen. Carbon has four valence electrons. The electronegativity of carbon is too small for carbon to gain electrons from most elements...