Lecture #14 Date _____ Chapter 33 ~ Invertebrates Parazoa Invertebrates: animals without backbones Closest lineage to
protists Loose federation of cells (unspecialized); no tissues Phy.: Porifera (sponges) Phylum: Porifera (pore bearer) Sessile (attached to bottom) Spongocoel (central cavity) Osculum (large opening) Choanocytes (flagellated collar cells) Hermaphroditic (produce both sperm and eggs) The Radiata, I
Diploblastic Radial symmetry Phy: Cnidaria (hydra, jellies, sea anemones, corals) No mesoderm; GVC gastrovascular VC gastrovascular cavity (sac with a central digestive cavity) Hydrostatic skeleton (fluid held under pressure)
Polyps and medusa Cnidocytes (cells used for defense and prey capture) Nematocysts (stinging capsule) The Radiata, II Phy: Ctenophora (comb jellies) 8 rows of comblike plates of fused cilia (largest animals that use cilia for locomotion) Tentacles with colloblasts (adhesive structures that capture prey)
Eumetazoa: The Acoelomates Phy: Platyhelminthes (flatworms, flukes, tapeworms) Bilateral; no body cavity Predators, scavengers, parasites Triplobastic; mesoderm but, GVC gastrovascular VC with only one opening Some cephalization
Many pathogens (Schistosoma, Cestodidias) Eumetazoa: Pseudocoelomates, I Body cavity partially derived from mesodermally derived tissue Phy: Rotifera 1st with a complete digestive tract Hydrostatic skeleton Parthenogenesis: type of reproduction in which
females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs Eumetazoa: Pseudocoelomates, II Phy: Nematoda (roundworms) Very widespread group of animals (900,000 sp. ?) Cuticle (tough exoskeleton) Decomposition and nutrient cycling Complete digestive track; no circulatory system Trichinella spiralis
The Coelomates: Protostomes, I Phylogenetics debated. Phy: Nemertea (proboscis and ribbon worms) Complete digestion and closed circulatory system (blood)
Phy: the lophophorates (sea mats, tube worms, lamp shells) Lophophore: Circular shaped body fold with ciliated tentacles around the mouth The Coelomates: Protostomes, II Phy: Mollusca (snails, slugs, squid, octopus, clams, oysters, chiton) Soft body protected by a hard shell of calcium carbonate Foot (movement), visceral mass
(internal organs); mantle (secretes shell); radula (rasplike scraping organ) Ciliated trochophore larvae (related to Annelida?) The Coelomates: Protostomes, III Phy: Annelida (earthworms, leeches, marine worms) True body segmentation (specialization of body regions) Closed circulatory system Metanephridia: excretory tubes
Brainlike cerebral ganglia Hermaphrodites, but crossfertilize QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture. The Coelomates: Protostomes, IV Phy: Arthropoda trilobites (extinct); crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimps); spiders, scorpions, ticks (arachnids); insects (entomology) 2 out of every 3 organisms
(most successful of all phyla) Segmentation, hard exoskeleton (cuticle)~ molting, jointed appendages; open circulatory system (hemolymph); extensive cephalization Insect characteristics Outnumber all other forms of life combined
Malpighian tubules: outpocketings of the digestive tract (excretion) Tracheal system: branched tubes that infiltrate the body (gas exchange) Metamorphosis... incomplete: young resemble adults, then molt into adulthood (grasshoppers) complete: larval stages (looks different than adult); larva to adult through pupal stage QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture. The Coelomates: Deuterostomes, I
Phy: Echinodermata (sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea lilies, sea cucumbers, sea daisies) Spiny skin; sessile or slow moving Often pentaradial Water vascular system by hydraulic canals (tube feet) QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture.
August 28, 2014 OBJECTIVE: Students will apply higher order thinking skills and vocabulary to scenarios and visuals in order to demonstrate use and practice the 4 H.O.T.s. necessary for success in L.S.N. Government class.
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period. of student protests that resulted in a huge . demonstration. in Beijing's Tiananmen Square. Over 10,000 students . gathered. to protest what they felt was . corruption. in the Chinese government. They called for a move . toward. democracy....