Introductory Psychology: Learning Learning is when you learn something? A P P S Y C H O L O G Y: U N I T 5 Introduction: Fact or Falsehood? Lowly animals, like sea snails, behave by instinct and are incapable of learning False Humans are the only animals that can learn behaviors merely by observing
others perform them False The study of inner thoughts, feelings, and motives has always occupied a central place in psychology False Introduction: Fact or Falsehood? A person can be more readily conditioned to fear snakes and spiders than to fear flowers
True With training, pigeons can be taught to discriminate a Bach composition from a Stravinsky composition True Negative reinforcement is another term for punishment False
Introduction: Fact or Falsehood? Psychologists agree that punishment, regardless of its form, has little effect on behavior False Animals learn only when rewards are given False Animals can learn to make virtually any
response if consistently rewarded for it False Learning: The Basics PA R T O N E Learning: The Basics Unlike some animals, humans are not born with a 100% genetic blueprint for life
Natures most important gift to us may be our adaptability Our capacity to learn new behaviors enables us to cope with changing circumstances Learning: The Basics Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice
What does relatively permanent mean? Upon learning, some part of the brain is physically changed to record what has been learned; a process for memory How do we learn? Seeing, doing, associating, etc. Learning: Classical Conditioning PA R T T W O If it makes your mouth water
Learning: Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning A type of learning where a stimulus gains the power to cause a response because it predicts another stimulus that already produces that response Form of learning by association; one of the simplest forms of learning Example
Flushing the toilet/shower Learning: Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian physiologist Initially interested in studying the digestive system of dogs Classical conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Unconditioned Response (UCR) Neutral Stimulus (NS) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Conditioned Response (CR) Elements of Classical
Conditioning Learning: Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) A naturally occurring stimulus that triggers an involuntary reflex/response Pavlovs Dogs UCS Food The Toilet-Shower Problem UCS UCR UCR
NS NS CS CS CR CR Scalding hot water Learning: Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Response (UCR) An involuntary reflex/response to a naturally
occurring or unconditioned stimulus The relationship between the UCS and UCR must be reflexive and not learned Pavlovs Dogs The Toilet-Shower Problem UCS Food UCS Scalding hot water UCR
Salivation UCR Jump NS NS CS CS CR CR
Learning: Classical Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS) A stimulus that eventually produces a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus (USC) The CS must be a neutral stimulus before conditioning occurs; originally known as the Neutral Stimulus (NS) Pavlovs Dogs The Toilet-Shower Problem UCS Food
UCS Scalding hot water UCR Salivation UCR Jump NS Bell NS
Yelling flush! CS Bell CS Yelling flush! CR CR Learning: Classical Conditioning Conditioned Response (CR) The learned reflex response to a conditioned
stimulus Generally, the CR replicates the UCR in terms of behavior (though the CR may be slightly weaker) Pavlovs Dogs The Toilet-Shower Problem UCS Food UCS Scalding hot water
UCR Salivation UCR Jumping NS Bell NS Yelling flush! CS
Bell CS Yelling flush! CR Salivation CR Jumping Just Remember Unconditioned UNLEARNED
Conditioned LEARNED Putting It All Together Learning: Classical Conditioning Acquisition The process of developing a learned response Occurs when a neutral stimulus (NS) is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
The subject learns a new response (CR) to a previously neutral stimulus (CS) Learning: Classical Conditioning Necessities in Classical Conditioning The CS must come before the UCS ***If Pavlov rang the bell just after he provided the dogs
with food, they wouldnt have become conditioned The CS & the UCS must come very close together Ideally no more than 5 seconds apart Learning: Classical Conditioning Necessities in Classical Conditioning The NS must be paired with the UCS several times
before conditioning can take place The CS is usually distinctive from other competing stimuli Learning: Classical Conditioning Stimulus Generalization The process by which an organism produces the same response to two similar stimuli The more similar the
substitute stimulus, the stronger the generalized response Pavlovs Stimulation Experiment Learning: Classical Conditioning Stimulus Discrimination The process by which an organism produces different responses to two similar stimuli The subject learns that one stimuli predicts the UCS while the other does not Learning: Classical Conditioning Extinction
The disappearance/diminishing of a learned response Occurs as the CS loses its power to trigger the CR The continual presentation of the CS alone will weaken the association between the two stimuli Learning: Classical Conditioning Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response After a rest period, an extinguished CR spontaneously recovers, but if the CS persists alone, the CR will become extinct
again Learning: Behaviorism PA R T T H R E E Learning: Behaviorism Classical conditioning eventually led to the study of behaviorism Both Pavlov & Watson considered the consciousness, or the mind, unfit for the scientific study of psychology
(May have underestimated the importance of cognitive processes biological constraints) and Learning: Behaviorism Founded by John B. Watson Behaviorism focused on objective and observable acts; nurture By manipulating a stimulus, a psychologist can control a learners behavioral response
Today, most believe that learning is the result of cognition, which is influenced by both nature and nurture Learning: Behaviorism John B. Watson & Rosalie Rayner (1920) Sought to explain that fears/phobias can be explained through classical conditioning
Established a fear of rats in an 11-month old, Albert Led to questions about experimental ethics Learning: Behaviorism The Experiment NS: White rat (initially elicited no response) UCS: Loud noise UCR: Crying/fear
Loud noise (UCS) paired with rat (NS)creates CS: White rat CR: Crying/fear/Nate In this case, Alberts fear is known as a conditioned emotional response (CER) What about white rabbits? Fur coats? Santa?
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