Latin II - Review Time!!!

Latin II - Review Time!!!

Latin III/IV Review Time!!! Remember that in Latin, nouns decline. The ending of a Latin noun tells you the number and case of a noun. Nouns also have gender a noun which is masculine will always be masculine, and so on. Finally, nouns belong to a declension. Nouns of the same declension will share the same grammatical endings. Noun Cases Case Most Common Use Nominative Subjects, predicate nominatives Genitive Possession Dative Indirect objects Accusative Direct objects Ablative Objects of (some) prepositions The First Declension Nouns of the first declension are generally feminine in gender. The exceptions are nouns such as nauta, agricola, and poeta which describe occupations which would generally be held by men. The characteristic vowel of the first declension is -a-, and a first declension noun can be recognized by its genitive singular ending in -ae. First declension nouns share these endings: epistula epistulae epistulae epistulrum epistulae epistuls epistulam

epistuls epistul epistuls The Second Declension Most second declension nouns are masculine in gender. They generally end in -us, but there are quite a few -er endings as well. The only way to be sure that a noun is second declension is to look for the - ending in the genitive singular. Recall that in a very few -er nouns (e.g. puer) the -e- remains in all the forms. annus ann liber libr ann annrum libr librrum ann anns libr librs annum anns librum librs ann anns libr librs bellum

bella bell bellrum bell bells bellum bella bell bells For neuters, recall that A) the nominative and accusative must be the same, and B) the nom/acc plural ending is always -a. The Third Declension The third declension is where we have to be careful with our rules. Remember especially that you decline a noun (and identify the declension) not by the nominative form, but by the genitive. Third declension nouns may have different nominatives, but they all have a genitive ending in -is. lux, lucis, f. tempus, temporis, n. lux lucs tempus tempora lucis lucum temporis temporum luc lucibus

tempor temporibus lucem lucs tempus tempora luce lucibus tempore temporibus Adjectives: Like nouns, except of course for the differences. Adjectives decline like nouns do. There are, however, two major differences. First, adjectives must agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. They get these three from the noun that they modify; they can change genders while nouns cannot. Second, adjectives only belong to two declensions. The first, the 1 st/2nd adjectives, switch between the two declensions depending on gender; they use the 1 st for feminines and the 2nd for masculines. 3rd declension adjectives are always 3rd. Masc/Feminine Singular Plural Neuter Singular Plural levis levs leve levia levis levium levis levium

lev levibus lev levibus levem levs leve levia lev levibus lev levibus 1st/2nd declension adjectives Singular Masc Fem Neuter longus longa longum long longae long long longae long longum longam

longum long long long Masc Fem Neuter long longae longa longrum longrum longrum longs longs longs longs longs longa longs longs longs Neuter 4th and 5th declension nouns These declensions are rarer but still important. The 4 th has a characteristic vowel of -u-, while the 5th uses -e-. impetus, impets, m.

rs, r, f. impetus impets rs rs impets impetuum re rrum impetu impetibus re rbus impetum impets rem rs impet impetibus r rbus Forming verbals Latin verbs can form 3 participles and one gerundive (which acts as the future passive participle). A Latin verb also has 6 infinitive forms, of which you should be familiar with 5. From: amo, amre, amv, amtus amans, amantis XXXXX XXXXX

amtus, -a, -um amtrus, -a, -um amandus, -a, -um amre amr amvisse amtus esse amtrus esse amtum r Comparison of adjectives and adverbs To make adjectives comparative, add -ior to the positive stem. To make them superlative, add -issimus instead. Exceptions include -r- and -l- stem adjectives, as well as a number of irregular comparatives. For adverbs, simply change the adjective forms to -ius and -issim instead. Positive Comp. Super. Comp. Adv. Sup. Adv. altus altior altissimus altius altissime fortis fortior fortissimus fortius

fortissime acer acrior acerrimus acrius acerrime facilis facilior facillimus facilius facillime bonus melior optimus melius optime malus peior pessimus peius pessime magnus maior maximus maius maxime

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