LAND SURVEYING - University of Kentucky

LAND SURVEYING - University of Kentucky

GLO Surveying 02/04/2015 U.S. Rectangular System Structure Meridians & Baselines:

35 principal meridians and 32 baselines Meridian line runs straight N-S Baseline line perpendicular to meridian Principal Meridian generally established 1st.

Standard Parallels E-W lines parallel to baseline at intervals of 24 miles N and S of the baseline.

Guide meridians Lines running N-S and 24 miles each side of P.M. This 24 mile square is a Quadrangle and contains 16 Townships

Baselines run @ 90 to P.M. Point of intersection (BL&PM) often called Cardinal Point.

Townships Township lines are E-W lines 6 miles apart north or south of the baseline. Range lines are N-S lines 6 miles apart east or west of the principal meridian.

This 6 mile square is called the Township Townships are divided into 36 1 mile square sections. Numbering system called boustrophedonically

Error Corrections Correction Lines (Standards of Parallel) Each acts as a new Baseline for townships to the North. Due to the convergence of meridians, compensation is needed.

B.L.M. Rules 1. Boundaries of the public lands, when approved & accepted are unchangeable. 2. Original townships, section, and section corners must stand as the true corners which they were intended to

represent whether in the place shown by field notes or not. 3. , section corners not established in original surveys shall be placed on line connecting section & corner & midway between, except in the north and west mile of

townships & fractional sections. B.L.M. Rules 4. Center lines of a section are to be straight, running from corner to corner with center of section at the

intersection. 5. In a fractional section where no opposite corresponding corner has been or can be established, the center line must be run from proper corner as nearly cardinal as parallelism with sectional boundaries allow.

Exterior Township Lines 1. Celestial observations to determine variance is made at least every 12 miles on east-west lines and at the end of 18-24 miles on north-south lines.

2. Method: Township line (baseline) established due eastwest across south boundary of tract to be surveyed; monumented every mile; from township corners run & monumented range lines, establishing temporary township corner at six miles; at the far corner establish a post and run line east-west; township corners established

at intersection points by running line due east or west to close; corner will be the intersection with distance to temporary post measured. Exterior Township Lines 3. Surveyor must prepare a map or diagram of lines to a

scale of 4 miles = 1 inch. 4. All measurements to be horizontal. 5. Monuments other than standard post: Mound 2 high with 4 base with angles in direction of cardinal points with stone of 3-4 lbs in center of a few handfuls of

charcoal, mound often covered with sod. Subdivision of Township The east tier of sections run, then return to south line and run next tier with east tier run until the last west

tier. General Instructions to Deputy Surveyors in Illinois & Missouri (1834)

1. Monuments

Post: Standard but 2 in ground

Stone: 7-8 deep, 12 wide, 14 long and 3 thick. Township corner 5 diameter & section corner 4 diameter. Must be squared off at top. Place stones so corners correspond to cardinal directions Mound: place at least 2 quarts of charcoal at least 3 below

surface over which mound is placed. Township corner mounds: 3 high, 5 square at base and 2 square at top. 3 stones (at least 5 square and 3 thick) in top of upper stone at least 3 below surface.

General Instructions of 1843 Required that section corners on west side of township be run and corrected thus eliminating double corners on the west side of township, but

double corners still exist on the north side of the township.

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