KSD IRTP: SATC Presentation July 2017 CSIR International ...
LOCAL LEVEL TRAVEL & TRAVAIL NARRATIVES: A REVIEW OF THE KSD HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS IN SUPPORT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IRTP SATC Presentation 10th July 2017 CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria Authors: Mac Mashiri, James Chakwizira & Bongisizwe Mpondo Presented by: James Chakwizira (PhD), University of Venda, School of Environmental Sciences, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, P/Bag X5050, Thohoyandou, 0950 Tel: +27 (0)15 962 8585; Cell: +27 (0)76 387 7814; Email: [email protected] ; [email protected] PRESENTATION ROADMAP INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO STUDY AREA RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LITERATURE REVIEW FINDINGS AND RESULTS ASSESSMENT OF CORRIDOR BASELINE CONDITIONS CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND TO STUDY AREA Rural communities in SA often face pervasive socio-economic problems on a daily basis, not least of which is transportation This transportation burden is real & substantial (many communities are not connected to the main rural transport infrastructure network) The lack of mobility & accessibility of goods & persons has had the effect of limiting participation in local economic activities & has further entrenched their isolation & marginalization from the economic mainstream
Given the endemic poverty, transportation is therefore purchased at a high social & economic cost Clearly, one of the most significant determinants of rural poverty is the lack of access to socio-economic opportunities Concomitant to these access & poverty issues is the concern for spatial restructuring geared towards the effective & sustainable use & distribution of rural resources to redress historical imbalances INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND TO STUDY AREA Aim of the Study To explore local level household travel & travail issues in KSD & assess their implications for improving local level transportation in the study area Study Objectives The following objectives framed the study: Describing the status quo pertaining to the pattern of household travel and transport in KSD by gender and disability Explore the household travelling and travailing constraints in KSD including their gender implications, and Analyzing opportunities for overcoming the travelling and travail constraints in KSD and make suggestions for improvement. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Mixed method approach was employed to assemble information, while a three-pronged approach was utilized to generate the IRTP, namely: Literature review synthesizing existing knowledge on transportation & development & highlighting information gaps Field consultations, internal reviews, analysis & synthesis &
feedback workshops, and Development of the plan HHD Surveys Spatial Profiling Data Collection In-Vehicle Surveys CBD Counts Road Sides Counts LITERATURE REVIEW Rural Poverty & Access Rural poverty is closely associated with poor access to socio-economic opportunities Accessibility represents the real value of transport infrastructure & services as it encapsulates all the advantages of spatial interaction / exchange of goods, information, know-how & experience Access is a critical element in rural development - its existence or absence defines the opportunity that rural communities have to improve their socio-economic stations Elements of accessibility include the extent & quality of infrastructure, the extent & condition of communications, facility location relative to
settlement patterns, & availability & affordability of transport services For KSD, 3 main constraints are recognized: Information, accessibility & critical mass constraints LITERATURE REVIEW Rural Poverty & Access Information Constraints Digital divide Reliance on tacit/ local knowledge Accessibility Constraints Critical Mass Constraints Poor macroaccessibility (to markets & specialised services) Poor micro-accessibility (to basic facilities) from farms & villages Low service demand volumes & market sizes Vast networks of low-volume roads Uneconomical small farm/ enterprise sizes Low volume & uncompetitive supply chains Qualified by Qualified by Expanding & cheapening
telecom access Reasonable to good microaccessibility within some rural towns Qualified by Medium>big enterprises & med>high volumes in many commercial farming areas LITERATURE REVIEW Barriers to Accessing the Built Environment Communication Disability Awareness & Assistance Social Barriers Affordability Personal Security Psychological Barriers Structural Barriers Infrastructure
Pedestrian Environment Vehicle design Self Esteem Information Planning LITERATURE REVIEW Barriers to Accessing the Built Environment Barriers to accessing the built environment especially for PWD & the elderly are largely a combination of : Social Psychological Structural barriers Accessibility can be altered by changes in location of activities vis--vis: the transport system the availability of an appropriate mode infrastructure or operating framework Transport is perceived not as a problem in itself in KSD, but always as part of a far more general social, political & economic problem Implication: need for integrated sustainable solutions that treat the total value chain Innovative integrated planning has largely been sacrificed on the altar of sectoral planning despite the many shortcomings associated with adherence to sectoral fiefdoms LITERATURE REVIEW Importance of Transportation Infrastructure
One of KSDs main developmental challenges continues to be the backlogs in physical infrastructure Provision of rural roads almost inevitably leads to increases in agricultural production and productivity by bringing in new land into cultivation Improved infrastructure also leads to expansion of markets, economies of scale and improvement in factor market operations. Rural infrastructure provision thus accentuates the process of commercialization in agriculture and the rural sector To ensure competitiveness of local production vis--vis imports into KSD by reducing the cost of production, storage & transportation of produce to the markets and to stimulate higher volumes of production and trade, LITERATURE REVIEW KSD IRTP Cornerstones Rural communities in KSD face pervasive socio-economic problems on a daily basis, not least of which is transportation The transportation burden is real & substantial (communities lack connection to main rural transport infrastructure network) Lack of mobility & accessibility means limitation in economic participation Given the endemic poverty, they therefore purchase transportation at a high social & economic cost Clearly, one of the most significant determinants of rural poverty in KSD is the lack of access to socio-economic opportunities LITERATURE REVIEW KSD IRTP Cornerstones Baseline BaselineConditions Conditions&& Constraints: Constraints:
Bias Biastowards towardsroads, roads, motorised motorised transport transport&& male-defined male-defined transport transport needs needs External node Resource allocation bias District node Economic / job access needs Village node Social/ educational access needs Womans burden SMME Community
Resource access needs LITERATURE REVIEW KSD IRTP Cornerstone KSD conditions describe a transport system that exhibits significant bias towards: roads motorized transport male-defined transport needs The burden of accessing socio-economic activities (fetching water & firewood) deep rural areas is socially allocated to women Women & children play second fiddle as transport stakeholders KSD needs to recognize the fundamental rural-urban differences between Mthatha & its hinterland, and come to the realization that interventions can only be successful if treatment is applied to a continuum rather than discrete systems FINDINGS & RESULTS Regional & Local Connectivity KSD is one of 7 LMs within OR Tambo DM in the Eastern Cape Province a district nationally designated as a poverty node requiring KSD is approximately 3019km area & is dominated by the regional urban centre of Mthatha & the secondary urban node of Mqanduli Rural-urban migration has been pilling pressure on Mthatha & Mqandulis already inadequate urban infrastructure & services Mthatha is connected to South Africas industrial heartland through daily flights from Mthatha Airport to ORTIA in Ekurhuleni in Gauteng The N2 currently connects Mthatha via Kokstad to both Durban in the east & Cape Town in the south-west via East London & Nelson Mandela Bay FINDINGS & RESULTS
Challenges & Opportunities for Local Level Transportation Transformation Urban 19% Coastal 3% QNA 17% Deep Rural (without services) 33% Yes 44% Peri-urban 19% Rural (with services close to road) 26% Typology of Settlements in KSD Municipality No 39% Levels of Poverty in KSD Municipality Demographic profile: age-sex profile of respondents: 69% of respondents who responded as HHD heads were men 31% were women KSD
FINDINGS & RESULTS Challenges and Opportunities for Local Level Transportation Transformation Occupation and income profiles of respondents 65% of HHD heads reported HHD income of up to R3000 per month 34% of spouses reported no income at all 40% had upwards of R1000 per month Over 70% of other HHD occupants do not earn any income Water sources Natural sources of water 47% Treated water sources including piped internal 44% Handcart hawkers and tankers had an 8% share suggesting an opportunity for transport service providers Over 30% of HHD water requirements are fetched some distance from the HHD FINDINGS & RESULTS Access to Education <15 min 100 80 8 9 >15<30 min 10 Walk
72 33 0 Yes, there is a road 48% HHDs had no access to a motorable road There are not Most of the In rainy season, Most of the Most of the Most of the enough roads in roads are in bad some or most of roads are dirt roads are gravel roads are tarred this area condition roads are roads impassable Adequacy of roads in KSD municipality FINDINGS & RESULTS Transport Infrastructure & Services Profile Accessibility Levels Activity Area Work Police Public Clinic Water Source
Public Hospital Government Admin Office Post Office Firewood Source Market Rank 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 7 Activity Area Home Affairs Tribal Office Doctor School Sangoma Shops Visitation to relatives & friends Church Rank 7 7 8 9 10 11
12 13 Dissatisfaction with Current Accessibility Levels FINDINGS & RESULTS Transport Infrastructure & Services Profile Opportunity to Leave or Stay in KSD 35 Too expensive 22 Affordability 20 Don't like to travel much Travel time to places with opportunities long 22 Lack of transport 16 7 No taxis/ buses during offpeak Lack of opportunities
56 15 Bus/ taxi stop too far from home 23 No bus/ taxi at the right time 0 10 20 30 40 50 Opportunity to leave or stay in KSD 60 0 10 20 30 Reasons for not travelling regularly
40 FINDINGS & RESULTS Transport Infrastructure & Services Profile Transport activity diary Ranking of public transport problems FINDINGS & RESULTS Rural Transport Services Rural transport services in KSD are largely provided by the private sector Market for these services does not operate effectively largely due to: Inadequate transport infrastructure affordability considerations market manipulations and distortions through cartel-like practices poor information flows between transport operators and users, and the lack of effective demand Services are often provided along the relatively lucrative main corridors by way of poorly maintained, largely old, & often unsafe vehicles, some of which are retired from the urban areas This leaves out a significant portion of the rural inhabitants without reliable means to access socio-economic opportunities FINDINGS & RESULTS Public Transport in KSD: Anatomy of a Dysfunctional Service Public transport in KSD is not only operating in a crisis situation but it is also grossly underfunded Given the poverty conditions in the municipality, the socio-economic role
that public transport could play has not been fully realized The inadvertent policy of totally surrendering the provision of rural transport services to the private sector appears to work only partially KSD needs to re-examine this policy with a view to generating intervention options that widen the public transport service dragnet FINDINGS & RESULTS Reducing the Local Level Transportation Travail Challenges in Mthatha. IRTPs departure point: there is a high socio-economic price to pay if the travel & transport needs of the poor majority are not adequately provided for Capacity building of & technical support for the IRTP is an integral pillar of the plan Two main strategic thrusts that undergird the ITRP: Promotion of coordinated rural nodal & linkage development Development of a responsive, balanced & sustainable rural transport system It is envisaged that coordinated development of an effectively interlinked network of rural service nodes and transportation linkages will be pursued within the context of strengthened IDPs the plan provides a platform for investment in balanced rural transport systems supported by sustainable funding, This has the effect of strengthening the capacity of communities, to own & productively employ their assets FINDINGS & RESULTS Towards an Indicative Transportation Transformation Framework The plan provides a fulcrum for undertaking innovative rural transport programs & projects to provide communities with: year-round accessibility cater for the needs of vulnerable users reduce access times to markets, tourist attractions, education & health facilities
The realization of these programmes is underpinned by the need to develop entrepreneurship in areas such as transport brokerage, as well as the adoption and dissemination of appropriate technologies The plan will prove to be a useful signpost, guide & planning tool for all stakeholders running the gamut from government officials, politicians, organized business, & rural communities through to NGOs & CBOs FINDINGS & RESULTS Reducing the Local Level Transportation Travails in KSD It is hoped that the plan will create a greater general appreciation of the potential catalytic development role of rural transport The plan is a living document & will be periodically reviewed to accommodate changing circumstances in KSD The outcome of the KSD rural development agenda should be a vibrant, equitable, cohesive and sustainable community Pivotal spine to achieving the transformational agenda: Guaranteeing infrastructural capacities to produce & deliver goods & services Securing minimum conditions & enabling environment to produce & deliver basic services associated with the movement & transportation of people & their goods in & around and beyond KSD FINDINGS & RESULTS KSD IRTP Cornerstones KSD Rural Development Agenda Welfare Approach Income Generating Approach Human Resources Development
Land Reform & Agricultural Transformation KSD IRTP Providing Access to Opportunities Vibrant Equitable & Sustainable KSD Communities Early Childhood Development Better Life Chances Low Carbon Econ Base Skills & Capacity Building Institutions & Governance Vision for transport for sustainable development in KSD Sense of Place & Belonging CONCLUSION KSDLM developed an IRTP to provide direction & impetus to efforts to address the travelling & transportation travails of KSD with a view to pushing back the frontiers of poverty & charting a sustainable socioeconomic development path for the municipality The development of the IRTP has been a deliberately inclusive, datadriven process incorporating: Extensive data collection employing various types of surveys Bilateral and multi-lateral discussions Workshops to take account of a wide cross-section of interests
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