Key Concept 1 -

Key Concept 1 -

Key Concept 1 -Before the arrival of Europeans, native populations in North America developed a wide variety of social, political, and economic structures based in part on interactions with the environment and each other. Before Contact Land bridge from Siberia to Alaska Migrated Southward from Atlantic Circle Amerinidians: 50-100 million people Societies Small sedentary societies

Matrilineal and Matrilocal No personal ownership of land Authority Generosity was repaid with authority Chiefs elected based on being a good leader Beliefs Animism Believed animals have souls the same as humans Native American Societies

Great Basin and Great Plains Few natural resources led to mobile/nomadic societies Hunted Bison in arid dry areas Pueblo eventually developed irrigation system to allow them to plant crops Northeast/Atlantic Seaboard Climate more conducive to farming Iroquois Confederacy helped organize a large group of tribes Traditional hunting for more stationary

animals and fish Waterways allowed for trade Native American Societies Southeast-Mississippi River Valley Cherokee Sedentary with waterways Cahokia, Mound builders Pacific Northwest Sedentary societies Vast trade networks

Intricate cultures (Potluck) Maize Cultivation Incan and Mayan civilization agriculture systems primarily based on maize cultivation Transformed nomadic hunting groups into agricultural villagers Improved diets, culture, and trade Stable food source European Contact Reasons for explorations Cultural Movement influenced by the Renaissance

Promoted Gold, Glory, and God Commerce Nationalism Catholicism Societal Factors Feudalism Primogeniture Aided by new technologies Sextant Caravel

Columbus Attempts to sail to India in 1492 Arrives at North America Conquers the local Indians by using smallpox Gave Natives gifts covered in diseases 100 years = 90% of Native Population gone The Columbian Exchange Exchange of plants, animals, food, and disease Between Old World and New World

Spanish Colonization Conquest of West Indies by Conquistadors Hernan Cortes conquers the Aztec Impacts Casta System Mixed races Metis, Mestizo, Mulatto, Zambo Mita System Required Indian to give labor Mission System

Catholic Church Forced Natives to build/work/convert Encomienda System French Colonization Settled by young, single men Good relations with Natives Focused on fur trade Jesuits Catholic missionaries sought to convert the Natives

Dutch Colonization Dutch East India Company Fur trade, farming failed, used real estate New Netherland, New Amsterdam Had conflict with neighboring tribes English/Results Defeated Spanish Armada Led to population growth Economic superiority Joint Stock Companies provided investors to buy stock in a company in return for a share of its future profits

Results Farms cultivated Firearms spread Alcohol/Tobacco

Global Empires Capitalism Increased emigration

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