Kennedy - IB History for RWR High School

Kennedy - IB History for RWR High School

Kennedy Election 1960 Used Sputnik and USSR testing of 1st ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistics Missile) against the Republicans US had lost our sense of purpose He argued the Rep. had allowed a Missile Gap to occur What about Eisenhowers New Look tells you this is a false statement?

Election 1960 Kennedys jabs convinced the American public, that the US needed new leadership TV also showed Kennedy in a better light than Nixon Nixon was sick and appeared nervous and sweating while Kennedy looked youthful and vibrant. Nixon Kennedy Debate

On the radio, Nixon won the debate. Nixon had a cold, and appeared tired and nerv ous, while Kennedy appeared youthful and vig orouson TV, image won over substance . Domestic Policies Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country. What does this tell you about Kennedys aspirations for the American people?

What might this say about his feelings on civil rights? Kennedy regarded civil rights as a distraction from his main concernthe Cold War THE CAMELOT YEARS During his term in office, JFK and his beautiful young wife, Jacqueline, invited many artists and celebrities to the White House

The press loved the Kennedy charm and JFK appeared frequently on T.V. The Kennedys were considered American Royalty (hence Camelot reference) THE BEST AND THE BRIGHTEST JFK surrounded himself with what one journalist

described as the best and the brightest available talent Of all of his elite advisors who filled Kennedys inner circle, he relied most on his 35-year-old brother Robert, whom he appointed attorney general RFK was Johns closest friend and advisor

The New Frontier Bold, new domestic programs

Education Welfare Health Care Elderly Assistance Inner-Cities Continue FDRs social action JFKs Problems Small Democratic majority in Congress Barely won the presidency

Congress didnt support policies Christian Southern Conservative Democrats didnt like him Battled high inflation Contending in wars in Cuba, Berlin, Russia, and Vietnam Most legislation would NOT pass Peace Corps Sent young Americans abroad to aid in the economic and educational progress of

developing nations. Needed to improve the image of the US in these countries so that they dont turn to communism By 1966 more than 15,000 were volunteers The Peace Corps JFKs call for American international volunteerism The commitment: Spend 2 years in developing

nations Specialize in education, agriculture, irrigation, sewage treatment, or health care Promote democracy and American influence Remains one of the most lasting legacys of JFKs presidency THE PEACE CORPS

The Peace Corps is a volunteer program to assist developing nations in Asia, Africa and Latin America The Peace Corps has become a huge success KENNEDY ADDRESSES INNER CITY BLIGHT AND RACISM In 1963, Kennedy called for a national assault on the causes of poverty He also ordered his brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy to

investigate racial injustice in the South Finally, he presented Congress with a sweeping civil rights bill and a sweeping tax cut bill to spur the economy JFKS OTHER EDGE: CIVIL RIGHTS Sit-Ins were non-violent protests over the policy of whites-only lunch counters in the South A second major event of

the campaign took place in October, 1960 Police arrested Martin Luther King for conducting a Sit-In at a lunch counter in Georgia King was sentenced to hard labor JFK, NIXON REACT DIFFERENTLY TO KING ARREST

While the Eisenhower Administration refused to intervene, JFK phoned Kings wife and his brother, Robert Kennedy, worked for Kings release The incident captured the attention of the AfricanAmerican community, whose votes JFK would carry in key states

King Kennedy Freedom Rides 1961 Civil Rights activists rode the interstate buses to enforce the desegregation laws. They were met with

extreme violence in the South. JFK had the National guard ride and protect them. Alliance for Progress A Marshall Plan for Latin America, although with much less money. Aimed to promote material and political freedom Used to combat the allure of communismit

failed. Unlike the Marshall Plan, military regimes in LA controlled the money and enriched themselves, while letting their people suffer. Alliance for Progress JFKs pledge of support for Latin America Considered a Marshall Plan for brown people $20 billion to support internal

improvements Supported education and schools Built hospitals and promote health care Helped distribute land Pros: helped some Cons: much abuse and corruption

Flexible Response Challenged Eisenhowers idea of massive retaliation Pushed for the use of conventional weaponry and military to combat Communism U.S. couldnt rely on nuclear arsenal to protect itself

RACE TO THE MOON On April 12, 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space Meanwhile, Americas space agency (NASA) began construction on new launch facilities in Cape Canaveral, Florida

and a mission control center in Houston, Texas The Space Race JFKs promise to be the first to the moon 1962: NASA sends John Glenn, first American in space Used Saturn V rocket to propel out of Earths orbit

1969: Saturn V rocket launches Apollo 11 First, and only, successful moon landing Neal Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins A MAN ON THE MOON Finally, on July 20, 1969, the

U.S. would achieve its goal An excited nation watched as U.S. astronaut Neil Armstrong took the first steps on the moon Space and defense-related industries sprang up in Southern and Western states Armstrong

One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind The Bay of Pigs Invasion Considered JFKs first major foreign policy issue Intended to overthrow Fidel Castro, who had become too cozy with Khrushchev

Eisenhower, before leaving office, had approved CIA training of Cuban exiles JFK Starts the Invasion (April 17, 1961) JFK hopes to start a revolution, authorizes invasion Total Failure:

1,400 armed Cubans, called La Brigada Runs aground on a coral reef JFK cancels air support, keep Americas involvement secret Castro captured or killed almost all of La Brigada Exposed American covert operations CRISIS OVER BERLIN

In 1961, Berlin, Germany was a city in great turmoil In the 11 years since the Berlin Airlift, almost 3 million East Germans (Soviet side) had fled into West Berlin (U.S. controlled) to flee communist rule

The Berlin Wall (August 1961) JFK and Khrushchev meet in Berlin to discuss E. German refugees escaping to West Berlin JFK promises to continue support Khrushchev orders the construction of the wall

The Cuban Missile Crisis (Oct. 12, 1962) American spy plan discovers the construction of missile launching sites in Cuba Khrushchev had offered nuclear missiles to force JFKs concessions in Berlin Began 13 days of an

intense stare down Nuclear Chicken JFK pushes for naval blockade Goal: Seize any ships going into/out of Cuba Force the immediate removal of missiles The Problem:

A direct attack on Soviets would be an act of war The existence of the missiles were an act of war The Fallout (Oct. 28, 1962) Russia blinks! Russia removes missiles from Cuba U.S. removes missiles from

Turkey Quarantine ends, but embargo begins EASING TENSIONS Both Khrushchev and Kennedy began searching for ways to ease the enormous tension between the two superpowers In 1963 they established a hot

line between the White House and the Kremlin Later that year, the superpowers signed a Limited Test Ban Treaty that served to ban nuclear testing in the atmosphere TRAGEDY IN DALLAS On a sunny day on November 22,1963, Air Force One landed

in Dallas with JFK and Jackie JFK received warm applause from the crowd that lined the downtown streets of Dallas as he rode in the back seat of an open-air limousine JFK SHOT TO DEATH As the motorcade approached the Texas Book Depository, shots

rang out JFK was shot in the neck and then the head His car was rushed to a nearby hospital where doctors frantically tried to revive him President Kennedy was dead (11/22/63) JFK LAID TO REST

Three-year old John Kennedy Jr. salutes his fathers coffin during the funeral All work stopped for Kennedys funeral as America mourned its fallen leader The assassination and the televised funeral became

historic events Like 9-11, Americans can recall where they were when they heard the news of the Presidents death

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