JRN 3326 Advising Student Publications -- Class II
JRN 2201 Reporting Dr. Steven Padgett Hall School of Journalism and Communication Troy University Class Notes II Interviewing. . . I learned about
interviewing because of this man Pierre Antoine Finck. He retired as a Colonel in the U.S. Army. He graduated from the University of Geneva and the University of Tennessees Medical
School. Interviewing . . . This is the next stop on the way to learning about interviewing.
Interviewing . . . Meet Capt. Chris Devalla, SP4 John DeDakis and Herb Glover
Interviewing . . . Here is the other player in my learn how to interview class. Interviewing . . .
How does these element fit together? My mistake What I learned Interviewing . . . Lets talk
about interviewing ... KINDS OF INTERVIEWS Personal: Good quotes, accurate description, insight into issues/ individuals Telephone: Problem Cant see interviewee, cant describe him/her, cant establish rapport. Work on
phone manners, verbal reinforcement Group: Better than no interview at all. Everyone may want to answer, or answers may be tainted. Code notebook, ascertain quotes, voice record, arrange to make contact later KINDS OF INTERVIEWS Electronic: If unable to reach source other ways. Written list of questions. Be professional. Write
like a business letter. Links to your published work. Use subject heading. Disad cant establish rapport, source can ignore or be unresponsive to your questions, no opportunity for clarification or elaboration INTERVIEW GUIDELINE Asking for Many people are wary of the press. Explain quickly and clearly who you
are, why you want the interview, how much time will you need. Ask for enough time to complete the interview. Allow more time in your schedule in case interview goes beyond. Remember no one (but govt.) owes you an interview. But interviewee can benefit too. INTERVIEW GUIDELINE
When and Where Delays in scheduling interviews are common. Use common friend. Will not want to offend. See you as reliable. If reluctant, find out whats bothering. Correct it if possible. Ex: send story sample. Plan location How to Dress Appropriate to interview How to Research Find/ Verify information Observe the office look for something to talk about.
INTERVIEW GUIDELINE How to Present Yourself make friends. First four minutes sets tone for rest. Sizing you up. Body language (friendly head nod, threatening blank stare, lazy slouch, alert posture) Voice/ word choice: Soften voice, good grammar INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUES
Be interested in your subject Smile while you talk and listen Use interviewees name correctly Be a good listener Talk in terms of the other persons interests and with the other persons terminology Make interviewee feel important, pay attention CONDUCTING INTERVIEW
Open-Ended: Allows respondent broad range in answer. If question is unfocused, answer is useless Closed Question: Asks for a more narrow reply Probe Question: Asks for amplification of an unresponsive or incomplete answer Mirror Question: By repeating part of the answer, forces respondent to amplify answer. Gives you time to finish writing original
answer. Slows down respondent. Clarify quote CONDUCTING INTERVIEW Yes/ No Question: Mostly useless for reporters Leading Question: Considered unethical Loaded Question: Designed to antagonize an interviewee, is equally manipulative Hypothetical Query: Allows interviewee to
think about and comment on coming development GLOVERS TIPS Writers personality sets tone for interview Keep your ego out of the interview Listen: dont keep talking Listen to what your subject is saying because you may surprised.
Dont interrupt if answer is not going way you want, unless you dont have time, must end GLOVERS TIPS Assume nothing. For example, spelling, title Dont be ashamed to say: I dont understand Ask difficult questions at end, easy ones first Dont be afraid of silence as this works in your
favor Ask for a business card ATTRIBUTION GUIDELINE On-the-record: All statements are directly quotable and attributable by name and title to the person who is making the statement. On background: All statements are directly quotable, but they cannot be attributed by
name or specific title to the person commenting. ATTRIBUTION GUIDELINE Deep Background: Anything that is said in the interview is usable, but not in direct quotation and not for attribution. Off-The-Record: Worst category. Where you promise not to reveal either information
or source. Some subjects demand to see story. You want to stay away from this. ATTRIBUTION GUIDELINE Guidance: Information given as guidance is to help reporters with the status or timing of an event. The information is considered to be similar to on background statements.
WRITING THE STORY Nothing says it better than said. Make sure you use attribution, especially when saying controversial things. Good quotes dont say the expected. In general, a line of text as you write your story will take up MORE lines when place in newspaper columns.
GATHERING MATERIAL Note-Taking Tips: even if you are a careful listener, will miss 50% of what speaker says. Use correct tools: good pad, some shorthand. Be inconspicuous as possible. Tape-recorder technique: use good one. Small. Recording indicator. Check working. Counter cues to locate specific segments. Warning signal if out of memory or tape. Also take
notes if recording on phone, obey state law GATHERING MATERIAL Fixing Quotes: What do you do when you encounter poor grammar, off-color remarks or inaccuracies? Should that go into the story? Grammar: depends on person/ language/story (commercial fur trapper or high school teacher?).
Off-color: leave it out. Leave out inaccurate if you cant go back to source GATHERING MATERIAL Description: Keen observation. Sometimes participation. Physical descriptions can be risky. Can also be described by other people. Style of language can provide description. Mental processes (through extensive interviews). How
he responds to situations too. Closing the Session: if no time, explain time has been up and you have another appointment. Say you may have questions, contact later Tips Act naturally Be prepared Have questions ready.
Be ready to ask questions not prepared for Appointments/ spontaneous Look up/ take notes Spell names/ pronounce names correctly Tips Double-check dates Start with easy questions first Ask open-ended questions later
Restrict yes/ no questions Dont argue over answers Do not promise first draft Ask for a follow-up phone call/email Look around you (book shelves) Tips Observe non-verbals Check some statements with other sources
Sample questions Whats so important about ? How does this () affect ? What effect does this () have on ? How do you feel about ? What was the most important/ defining moment of your life? How would you complete the following
sentence ? More questions . . . What are/have been your goals ? What obstacles have you faced/ overcome? What are your greatest accomplishments? Have the interviewee go back to Important questions
Can you explain that to me? How do you feel about ? Can you be more specific? Please explain that in laymans terms Have I missed anything? Is there anything you would like to add? Can you please repeat that? Additional questions?
Are there any questions ? There will be more next time!
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