ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 - Weber State University

ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 - Weber State University

Chapter 3: Point-toPoint Connections Connecting Networks Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1 Chapter 3 3.1 Serial Point-to-Point Overview 3.2 PPP Operation 3.3 Configuring PPP

3.4 Troubleshooting WAN Connectivity 3.5 Summary Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2 Chapter 3: Objectives In this chapter, you will be able to: Explain the fundamentals of point-to-point serial communication across a WAN. Configure HDLC encapsulation on a point-to-point serial link.

Describe the benefits of using PPP over HDLC in a WAN. Describe the PPP layered architecture and the functions of LCP and NCP. Explain how a PPP session is established. Configure PPP encapsulation on a point-to-point serial link. Configure PPP authentication protocols. Use show and debug commands to troubleshoot PPP. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3

3.1 Serial Point-to-Point Overview Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4 Serial Communications Serial and Parallel Ports Point-to-point connections are used to connect LANs to service provider WANs.

Also referred to as a serial connection or leased-line connection. Communications across a serial connection is a method of data transmissions in which the bits are transmitted sequentially over a single channel. In parallel communications, bits can be transmitted simultaneously over multiple wires. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5 Serial Communications

Serial Communication On the WAN link, data is encapsulated by the protocol used by the sending router. Encapsulated frame is sent on a physical medium to the WAN. Receiving router uses the same communications protocol to deencapsulate the frame when it arrives. Three serial communication standards for LAN-to-WAN connections: RS-232, V.35, HSSI Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6 Serial Communications Point-to-Point Communication Links Point-to-point links can connect two geographically distant sites. Carrier dedicates specific resources for a line leased by the customer (leased-line). Point-to-point links are usually more expensive than shared services. Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7 Serial Communications Time-Division Multiplexing Multiplexing A scheme that allows multiple logical signals to share a single physical channel. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 8 Serial Communications Statistical Time-Division Multiplexing STDM uses a variable time-slot length, allowing channels to compete for any free slot space. STDM does not waste high-speed line time with inactive channels using this scheme. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 9 Serial Communications TDM Examples The industry uses the Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) or Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) standard for optical transport of TDM data. Traffic arriving at the SONET multiplexer from four places at 2.5 Gb/s goes out as a single stream at 4 x 2.5 Gb/s or 10 Gb/s. Example: TDM SONET

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10 Serial Communications Demarcation Point Marks the point where your network interfaces with a network that is owned by another organization Interface between CPE and

network service provider equipment Point in the network where the responsibility of the service provider ends Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11 Serial Communications

DTE-DCE DTE Commonly CPE, generally a router, could also be a terminal, computer, printer, or fax machine if they connect directly to the service provider network. DCE Commonly a modem or CSU/DSU, it is a device used to convert the user data from the DTE into a form acceptable to the WAN service provider transmission link. The signal is received at the remote DCE, which decodes the signal back into a sequence of bits; the remote DCE then signals this sequence to the remote DTE. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

12 Serial Communications Serial Cables Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13 Serial Communications

Serial Bandwidth Bandwidth refers to the rate at which data is transferred over the communication link. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14 HDLC Encapsulation WAN Encapsulation Protocols

Data is encapsulated into frames before crossing the WAN link; an appropriate Layer 2 encapsulation type must be configured. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15 HDLC Encapsulation HDLC Encapsulation Bit-oriented, synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Uses synchronous serial transmission to provide error-free communication between two points. Defines a Layer 2 framing structure that allows for flow control and error control through the use of acknowledgments. Cisco has developed an extension to the HLDC protocol to solve the inability to provide multiprotocol support (Cisco HLDC also referred to as cHDLC). Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16

HDLC Encapsulation HDLC Frame Types The Flag field initiates and terminates error checking, and the frame always starts and ends with an 8-bit flag field, 01111110. I-frames carry upper layer information and some control information; sends and receives sequence numbers, and the poll final (P/F) bit performs flow and error control. S-frames provide control information Request and suspend transmission, report on status, and acknowledge

receipt of I-frame. U-frames support control purposes and are not sequenced. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17 HDLC Encapsulation Configuring HDLC Encapsulation Default encapsulation method used by Cisco devices on synchronous

serial lines Point-to-point protocol on leased lines between two Cisco devices Connecting to a non-Cisco device, use synchronous PPP Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18 HDLC Encapsulation Troubleshooting a Serial Interface

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19 HDLC Encapsulation Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.) Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 20 HDLC Encapsulation Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.) Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21

HDLC Encapsulation Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.) Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22 HDLC Encapsulation Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.)

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23 HDLC Encapsulation Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.) Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 24 3.2 PPP Operation Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25 Benefits of PPP

Introducing PPP PPP contains three main components: HDLC protocol for encapsulating datagrams over point-to-point links Extensible Link Control Protocol (LCP) to establish, configure, and test the data link connection Family of Network Control Protocols (NCPs) to establish and configure different network layer protocols (IPv4, IPv6, AppleTalk, Novell IPX, and

SNA Control Protocol) Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26 Benefits of PPP Advantages of PPP PPP not proprietary PPP includes many features not available in HDLC Link quality management feature monitors the quality of the link. If too many errors are detected, PPP takes down the link

Supports PAP and CHAP authentication Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27 LCP and NCP PPP Layered Architecture LCP sets up the PPP connection and its

parameters NCPs handle higher layer protocol configurations LCP terminates the PPP connection Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28

LCP and NCP PPP Control Protocol (LCP) LCP provides automatic configuration of the interfaces at each end, including: Handling varying limits on packet size. Detecting common misconfiguration errors. Terminating the link.

Determining when a link is functioning properly or when it is failing. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29 LCP and NCP PPP Network Control Protocol (NCP) PPP permits

multiple network layer protocols to operate on the same communications link. For every network layer protocol used, PPP uses a separate NCP. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 30 LCP and NCP PPP Frame Structure Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31

PPP Sessions Establishing a PPP Session Phase 1 LCP must first open the connection and negotiate configuration options; it completes when the receiving router sends a configuration-acknowledgment frame back to the router initiating the connection. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32

PPP Sessions Establishing a PPP Session (cont.) Phase 2 LCP tests the link to determine whether the link quality is sufficient to bring up network layer protocols. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33

PPP Sessions Establishing a PPP Session (cont.) Phase 3 After the LCP has finished the link quality determination phase, the appropriate NCP can separately configure the network layer protocols, and bring them up and take them down at any time. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

34 PPP Sessions LCP Operation LCP operation includes provisions for link establishment, link maintenance, and link termination. LCP operation uses three classes of LCP frames to accomplish the work of each of the LCP phases: Link-establishment frames establish and configure a link. Configure-Request, Configure-Ack, Configure-Nak, and Configure-Reject Link-maintenance frames manage and debug a link. Code-Reject, Protocol-Reject, Echo-Request, Echo-Reply, and Discard-Request Link-termination frames terminate a link.

Terminate-Request and Terminate-Ack Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35 PPP Sessions LCP Operation (cont.) During link maintenance, LCP can use messages to provide feedback and test the link. Echo-Request, Echo-Reply, and Discard-Request can be used to

test the link. Code-Reject and Protocol-Reject provides feedback when one device receives an invalid frame due to either an unrecognized LCP code (LCP frame type) or a bad protocol identifier. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36 PPP Sessions LCP Operation (cont.)

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37 PPP Sessions LCP Packet Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 38 PPP Sessions LCP Packet Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39

PPP Sessions LCP Packet (cont.) Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40 PPP Sessions PPP Configuration Options

Optional functions include: Authentication using either PAP or CHAP Compression using either Stacker or Predictor Multilink that combines two or more channels to increase the WAN bandwidth Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41 PPP Sessions NCP Explained Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

42 3.3 Configuring PPP Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43 Configure PPP PPP Configuration Options

Authentication Two authentication choices are Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP). Compression Increases the effective throughput on PPP connections by reducing the amount of data in the frame that must travel across the link. The protocol decompresses the frame at its destination. Two compression protocols available in Cisco routers are Stacker and Predictor. Error detection Identifies fault conditions. The Quality and Magic Number options help ensure a reliable, loop-free data link. The Magic Number field helps in detecting links that are in a looped-back condition. Magic numbers are generated randomly at each end of the connection. Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44 Configure PPP PPP Configuration Options PPP Callback PPP callback is used to enhance security. With this LCP option, a Cisco router can act as a callback client or a callback server. The client makes the initial call, requests that the server call it back, and terminates its initial call. The callback router answers the initial call and makes the return call to the client based on its configuration statements. The command is ppp callback [accept | request].

Multilink This alternative provides load balancing over the router interfaces that PPP uses. Multilink PPP provides a method for spreading traffic across multiple physical WAN links while providing packet fragmentation and reassembly, proper sequencing, multivendor interoperability, and load balancing on inbound and outbound traffic. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45 Configure PPP

PPP Basic Configuration Command Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 46 Configure PPP PPP Compression Commands Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47 Configure PPP PPP Link Quality Monitoring Command The ppp quality percentage command ensures that the link meets the quality requirement set; otherwise, the link closes down. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 48 Configure PPP PPP Multilink Commands Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 49

Configure PPP Verifying PPP Configuration Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 50 Configure PPP Verifying PPP Configuration (cont.)

The output indicates the interface Multilink 1, the hostnames of both the local and remote endpoints, and the serial interfaces assigned to the multilink bundle. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 51 PPP Authentication PPP Authentication Protocols

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 52 PPP Authentication Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) Initiating PAP Completing PAP Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 53 PPP Authentication Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol Initiating CHAP Responding CHAP Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 54 PPP Authentication CHAP (cont.) Completing CHAP Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

55 PPP Authentication PPP Encapsulation and Authentication Process Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 56 PPP Authentication

Configuring PPP Authentication Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 57 PPP Authentication Configuring PPP Authentication (cont.) Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 58 PPP Authentication Configuring PPP Authentication (cont.) Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

59 3.4 Troubleshooting WAN Connectivity Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 60 Troubleshoot PPP

Troubleshooting PPP Serial Encapsulation Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 61 Troubleshoot PPP Troubleshooting a PPP Configuration with Authentication Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 62 Chapter 3: Summary Point-to-Point links are usually more expensive than shared services; however, the benefits may outweigh the costs. Constant availability is important for some protocols, such as VoIP. SONET is an optical network standard that uses STDM for efficient use of bandwidth. The demarcation point is the point in the network where the responsibility of the service provider ends and the responsibility of the customer begins. The CPE, usually a router, is the DTE device. The DCE is usually a modem or CSU/DSU.

Cisco HDLC is a bit-oriented synchronous data link layer protocol extension of HDLC and is used by many vendors to provide multiprotocol support. This is the default encapsulation method used on Cisco synchronous serial lines. Synchronous PPP is used to connect to non-Cisco devices, to monitor link quality, provide authentication, or bundle links for shared use LCP is the PPP protocol used to establish, configure, test and terminate the data link connection. LCP can optionally authenticate a peer using PAP or CHAP. Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 63

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 64

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