Project Lockdown OHS Web Server Edition (712) Tuesday, April 20 from 4:30 - 5:30 Brian J. Mulreany Kevin Sheehan Copyright 2010 by Kevin Sheehan and Brian J. Mulreany. All Rights Reserved. Presenters Brian J. Mulreany 20+ years of experience with Oracle Products 10+ years of experience with Web and Java technology Technical director with AT&T and Oracle Consulting focusing on software architecture Senior Architect with Unisys supporting DHS Kevin Sheehan CISSP with 29 years of IT experience 16 years experience with Oracle technology
7 years in Homeland Security sector Technical Director at Oracle, Unisys & Agilex Technologies 2 IOUG Membership Benefits Information Library of Oracle Knowledge SELECT Journal 5 Minute Briefing Education Collaborate Conferences Networking Member Directory Special Interest Groups Discussion Forums Advocacy
3 Agenda 1 Setting up the Web Tier 2 Advanced Hardening 3 Monitoring the Web Tier 4 Planning for the Future 4 1 - Setting up the Web Tier
Configuring for each use case Stop leaking configuration information Dont pick that OHS Pick the right OHS by use case How many user IDs to run OHS? Using IfDefine for Control 5 Dont pick that OHS There are 10+ versions of OHS It is externally labeled as "10.1.3.3", but the component version is
actually "10.1.3.1", and is a special build, different than the Oracle Application Server counterpart. All OHS versions are not created equal Something to think aboutThe Oracle HTTP Server delivered with the Oracle Database 10.2 Companion CD is provided to initially get HTMLDB installed and running. However, its an older version with limited functionality and support. Both the Oracle HTTP Server and HTMLDB from this CD would need to be upgraded at this time. The Companion CD also installs a mix of 10.2 and 10.1 products which is more difficult to maintain. 6 Pick the right OHS by use case OHS
Apache When to Choose 9iAS 1.3 Required for EBS 11i deployments, no other option 10gAS 1.3 Required for EBS 12 deployment, no other option 10gAS 1.3 The 10.1.2 version is primarily used for custom Java
deployments. The 10.1.3 is for SOA Suite and can also be used for OBIEE deployments. 10gAS 2.0 Best for reverse proxy use if you want to take advantage of mod_security. Works well for UCM integration. 11gDB 2.0 Only use this version for Apex if you are not ready for 11gAS or you are limited by license 11gAS
2.2 Best for general purpose use, but does not support mod_security or mod_oc4j. 7 How many UserIDs to run OHS? Two-Man Rule or Four-Eyes Principle A security control technique that requires more than one person or more than one user ID to compromise an entire system. It takes three User IDs to run OHS. 1. One user ID to own the OHS software 2. One user ID to run the OHS web software 3. One user ID to own the web content
8 Using IfDefine for Control Controls SSO module, Restrict mode in EBS Use it to control proxy or other modules LoadModule proxy_module modules/mod_proxy.so Set the opmn variables you need 9 2 Advanced Hardening
Fingerprinting OHS CIS Apache Benchmark Configuring OHS as a reverse proxy Mod_status vulnerability Mod_security vs. mod_rewrite Grid Control Setup 10 Fingerprinting OHS Base Install After install it shows Apache 2 with high degree of confidence
After hardening it shows Orion 2 with low degree of confidence 11 Configure an OHS reverse proxy Typical 11i DMZ setup. Anything wrong with this picture? 12 Mod_status vulnerability CVE-2007-6388 - Cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability in mod_status User Enters: /server-status?refresh=0;url=http://untrusted-site.com/ Server Responds with this header: Refresh: 0;url=http://untrusted-site.com/
Refresh parameter entered by the user, and not validated, was placed in an HTTP header 13 Mod_Security vs Mod_Rewrite Mod_security Mod_rewrite Pro Availability of Rules Detailed logging Designed as a security tool Pro
Typically already in use Good for simple blocking Performance Con New module to maintain Parsing adds overhead OHS uses old 1.84 version Con More work to code rules Logging more for debug Not designed for security 14 3 - Monitoring the Web Tier
Grid Control Policies for OHS Auditing, Reporting, and Trending (ART) Artificial Ignorance (AIg) Monster Mitigation Matrix 15 Grid Control Policies for OHS DESCRIPTION Check that HostNameLookup is off on this HTTP Server Check that MaxKeepAliveRequests directive is set to a non-zero value on this HTTP Server Verifies that Directory Indexing is disabled Verifies whether Access Logging is enabled
Verifies that the HTTPd binary is not owned by a super user Checks whether users other than the owner have write permission in the Document Root folder Checks whether a Dummy Wallet is being used on HTTP Server Checks whether Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is enabled for Single Sign-On (SSO) on HTTP Server 16 Artificial Ignorance (AIg) Once you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, no matter how improbable, must be the truth. Arthur Conan Doyle Gaps in the OHS access log
Same session cookie from multiple IP addresses Requests for content types that you dont serve Successful requests for content that you deny 17 Monster Mitigation Index ID Name M1 - Establish and maintain control over all of your inputs. M2 - Establish and maintain control over all of your outputs. M3 - Lock down your environment.
M4 - Assume that external components can be subverted, and your code can be read by anyone. M5 - Use industry-accepted security features instead of inventing your own. GP1 - Use libraries and frameworks that make it easier to avoid introducing weaknesses. GP2 - Integrate security into the entire software development lifecycle. GP3 - Use a broad mix of methods to comprehensively find and prevent weaknesses. GP4 - Allow locked-down clients to interact with your software. Source: 2010 CWE/SANS Top 25: Monster Mitigations 18 Ten Most Wanted Characters 19 4 Planning for the Future Configuration Item
Rating Apache version recent 2.2.13 Where is mod_security? Conf file macros good and bad Compile options using only a minimum Wildcard include Server Signature Cgi-bin scripts Logging ODL style 20 Tips & Tricks for Managing OHS Best Feature of OHS 2 not enabled Use threads with mpm worker Build your own moat
Protect your COTS products Listen up! Make sure you check all ports Use an inclusive OHS configuration Use include to separate configs Can you use mod_plsql and OHS2 Yes, and reduce DB connections Use mod_rewrite or mod_security? Why choose, use both A bit of nostalgia
New load modules with 2.2 Virtualization Inherit rules with Virtualhosts Load Module order is important Load Module order matters in 1.3 Test those changes apachectl configtest is OK Need a little Cache? Take advantage of client caching
Terminating SSL in front of OHS Speed up your secure requests 21 Thanks for Attending! Fill out your comment card Session # 712 Collaborate10 recommended presentations: You vs. The Bad Guys - The Top 10 List For Securing R12 Securing the E-Business Suite Expert & Best Practices Panel Contact Information Brian J. Mulreany Email: [email protected] Kevin Sheehan Email: [email protected] Blog: http://securedba.com/ 22
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