Investment Decision Rules outline Decision rules for stand-alone projects NPV, Payback IRR EVA

Decision rules for mutually exclusive investment opportunities Project selection with resource constraints Profitability index Stand-Alone Projects The NPV Rule

Stand-Alone project: we decide whether to accept or reject the investment opportunity. The value of accepting the project is given by its NPV and the value of rejecting the project is zero. When a project is selected, the change in firm value is given by the projects NPV. The NPV Rule Accept all projects that have a positive NPV

Calculating the NPV Fredrick Feed and Farm (FFF) example FFF can produce a new environmentally friendly fertilizer at a substantial cost saving over the companys existing line of fertilizer. The fertilizer will require a new plant that can be built immediately at a cost of $250 million. Financial managers estimate that the benefits of the new fertilizer will be $35 million

per year, starting at the end of the first year and lasting forever. What is the NPV of the project when the cost of capital is 10%? NPV of FFF Project Alternatives to the NPV The NPV represents the true long-term value of an

investment opportunity In practice other methods are used by firms in the capital budgeting process. In practice 74.9% of the firms surveyed in Graham and Harvey (2001) use the NPV rule in making investment decisions. Among the common alternative methods used by firms are the Payback rule, IRR rule, and Economic Value Added or EVA.

Alternatives to NPV The Payback Rule The payback investment rule: The project is accepted only if the initial investment is recovered or paid back before the payback period cutoff required by the firm. If FFF requires all projects to have a payback period of five years or less. Would the firm undertake the fertilizer project under this rule? (250+175=-75<0)

FFF will reject the project under the payback investment rule! About 50% of firms use the payback period.what do you think about this? Graham and Harvey (2001) Calculating the IRR

Internal Rate of Return (IRR): The rate of return under which the NPV of a project is zero NPV(Project, rate r=IRR) = 0 What is the IRR of the project considered by FFF? IRR and NPV link FFF Project

The IRR rule The IRR rule: accept any investment opportunity where IRR exceeds the opportunity cost of capital. Reject any opportunity whose IRR is less than the opportunity cost of capital. What does the IRR rule imply for the FFF investment opportunity? (IRR of 14% > r of 10%)

The IRR rule will give the correct (same as NPV rule) most of the time but not all of the time! Limitations of the IRR rule Delayed Investment example: John Star, a retired CEO, is offered a $1 million how I did it book deal. The publisher will pay $1 million upfront and John estimates

that it will take him three years to write the book. The time he spends writing will cause him to forgo alternative sources of income amounting to $500,000 per year. John estimates his opportunity cost of capital to be 10%. The NPV of Stars investment opportunity: Limitations of the IRR rule

The IRR of Stars investment opportunity: The IRR is higher than the cost of capital yet the project is not worth taking. For most investment opportunities expenses occur initially and cash is received later and a higher rate is better. In this case it is the opposite (like when one borrows money) a lower rate is better

IRR and NPV link (Delayed Investments Example) Limitations of the IRR rule Multiple IRRs Example: The publisher has agreed to make royalty payments of $20,000 per year forever, starting once the book is published in three years. Now, should John accept the

offer? The NPV of the modified investment opportunity: IRR and NPV link (Multiple IRRs Example) Economic Value Added The Economic Value Added concept:

While NPV tells us whether an investment is a good idea or not at the time of investment it does not indicate performance overtime the EVA does exactly that. Calculating EVA: EVAn =Cn - rI n- 1 - (Depreciation in Period n) Where Cn is the Cash Flow in Period n

. I n- 1 is the book value of capital in period n-1 The EVA Rule The EVA Rule Accept all projects for which the present value of EVAs is positive.

Example: What is the EVA of FFF's fertilizer opportunity, which required an upfront investment of $250 million, and had a benefit of $35 million each year. Is it a good investment according to the EVA rule (suppose that the capital lasts forever zero depreciation)? EVA for FFF Project

Applying the EVA Rule with Depreciation Example: You are considering installing energy efficient lighting in your firm's warehouse. The installation will cost $300,000, and you estimate total savings of $75,000 per year. The lights will depreciate evenly over the 5 years, at which point they must be replaced. The cost of capital is 7%, per year. What do the NPV and EVA rules indicate about whether you

should install the lights? 75 75 75 75 75 NPV =- 300 +

+ + + + =$7.51 2 3 4

5 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.07 Applying EVA Rule - 6.0 - 1.8 2.4 6.6 10.8 PV(EVA) =

+ + + + =$7.51 2 3 4

5 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.07 Mutually Exclusive Investment Opportunities Tough choices We are often compelled to choose between mutually exclusive alternatives

Choosing Correctly When confronted with mutually exclusive alternatives we choose the alternative that contributes the most value - the one with the highest NPV Identical Scale

Example: Don is evaluating two investment opportunities. If he went into business with his girlfriend, he would need to invest $1000 and the business would generate incremental cash flows of $1100 per year, declining at 10% forever. Alternatively, he could start a single-machine Laundromat. The washer and dryer cost a total of $1000 and will generate $4000 per year, declining at 20% per year forever. The opportunity cost of capital is 12% and

both will require all his time, so Don must choose between them. Which one should he choose? Identical Scale Going into business with girlfriend: 1100 NPV =- 1000 + =$4000

0.12 - (- 0.10) 1100 IRR: 1000 = IRR =100% IRR- (- 0.10) Identical Scale Laundromat:

400 NPV =- 1000 + =$250 0.12 - (- 0.20) 400 IRR: 1000 = IRR =20% IRR- (- 0.20)

Identical Scale Change in Scale Example: Don realizes that he can actually install 20 machines in the Laundromat. What should Don do now?

400 NPV =20 - 1000 + =$5000 0.12 - (- 0.20) 400 IRR: 1000 =

IRR =20% IRR- (- 0.20) Change in Scale Project Selection with Resource Constraints Resource constraints

We are often required to make choices while keeping a specific budget Choosing the right set of projects When confronted with a resource constraint we choose the set of projects to invest in by allocating the constrained resource to the most profitable projects as ranked by their

profitability index Profitability Index The profitability index of a project measures the value created (in terms of NPV) per unit of resource consumed by the project Profitability Index =

Value Created NPV = Resource Consumed Resource Consumed "units" can be dollars if we are facing a capital constraint, number of employees in case of a human resource constraint, or square feet in case of a space constraint.

Profitability Index Example Using the Profitability Index Example: Your division at NetIt, a large networking company, has put together a project proposal to develop a new home networking router. The expected NPV of the project is $17.7 million, and

the project will require 50 software engineers. NetIt has a total of 190 engineers available, and the router project must compete with the following other projects for these engineers. How should NetIt prioritize these projects? Using the Profitability Index

Using the Profitability Index Solution: Further examples IRR versus NPV Question 7 (2nd edition) OpenSeas, Inc. is evaluating the purchase of the new cruise

ship. The ship would cost $500 million, and would operate for 20 years. OpenSeas expects annual cash flows from operating the ship to be $70 million (at the end of each year) and its cost of capital is 12%. a. b. c. d.

Prepare an NPV profile of the purchase. Estimate the IRR (to the nearest 1%) from the graph. Is the purchase attractive based on these estimates? How far off could OpenSeas cost of capital be (to the nearest 1%) before your purchase decision would change? IRR versus NPV

University Registration System Question 17 (2nd edition) Your firm has been hired to develop new software for the universitys class registration system. Under the contract, you will receive $500,000 as an upfront payment. You expect the development costs to be $450,000 per year for the next three years. Once the new system is in place, you will receive a final payment of $900,000 from the university four years from now.

a. What are the IRRs of this opportunity? b. If your cost of capital is 10%, is the opportunity attractive? Now suppose that you are able to renegotiation the terms of the contract so that your final payment in year 4 will be $1million. c. What is the IRR of the opportunity now? d. Is it attractive at these terms? University Registration System

University Registration System Natashas Flowers Question 29 (2nd edition) Natashas Flowers, a local florist, purchases fresh flowers each day at the local flower market. The buyer has a budget of $1000 per day to spend. Different flowers have different profit margins, and also a

maximum amount the shop can sell. Based on past experience, the shop has estimated the following NPV of purchasing each type. What combination of flowers should the shop purchase each day? Roses Lilies Pansies Orchids

NPV per bunch $3 8 4 20 Cost per

bunch $20 30 30 80 Max. bunches 25

10 10 5 Natashas Flowers