Introduction to Process Technology - JAOMAD

Introduction to Process Technology - JAOMAD

PRT 101 Introduction to Process Technology Test #1 Review Test Scores Highest two were 94 & 92

Class average was 81 8 folks had trouble with this one: Came for Chapter 1 page 7; homework page 18 This one is basic understanding of instrument system. 7 folks had trouble with this one:

Came from homework Chapter 2, page 36 When doing homework, if in doubt, RESEARCH the chapter for the answer it will help you to remember. Idea of the course is to learn what various instruments do. 6 folks had trouble with this one: From Chapter 3, page 43 Consider that through Matter is a solid by definitions

(see first sentence under Conduction) Only one got both answers to this one: Chapter 3,page 45 Kelvin scale uses same size as Celsius degree unit I just has a different zero point. 8 folks had trouble with this one:

Came from homework Chapter 4, page 80 again: When doing homework, if in doubt, RESEARCH the chapter for the answer it will help you to remember. Idea of the course is to learn what various instruments do. 6 folks had trouble with this one: 7. If the mass remains constant and the density of a liquid in a tank decreases, the level of the liquid in the tank_______

A A. Increases; B. Decreases; C. Remains constant; D. Does nothing because density and level are not related. Came from homework Chapter 4, page 80 again: When doing homework, if in doubt, RESEARCH the chapter for the answer it will help you to remember. Note density & head pressure discussions on pages 66 & 67. 8 folks had trouble with this one:

8. Which type Analyzer would be used to find out what components and their respective percentage are in a sample stream? _______ A. pH meter; B. Gas Chromatograph; C. ORP Meter; D. Optical Analyzer. B Came from homework Chapter 6, page 114 again: Note Chromatography discussion on page 104

Only 4 folks had trouble with this one: Came from homework Chapter 5, page 93 again: Idea of the course is to learn what various instruments do. 7 folks had trouble with this one Came from homework Chapter 5, page 93 again: Idea of the course is to learn what various instruments do.

No one missed this one! Great! 11. What is important about measuring the percentage of O2 in the flue gas from fired equipment? ________ C A. Too much O2 can lead to fouling; B. Too little O2 can lead to contamination; C. Too much or too little O2 can lead

to dangerous conditions & inefficient combustion; D. Measuring % O2 is not important. Only one had trouble with this one 7 folks had trouble with this one Came from homework Chapter 5, page 93 again: Idea of the course is to learn what various instruments.

8 folks had trouble with this one Came from homework Chapter 5, page 93 again: Idea of the course is to recognizevarious instruments do. All but one got this! 15. True or False: Process technicians are often responsible for monitoring process

analyzers and sampling systems. Three more tests to go! Notice how important those home-works are Use this as a learning effort (review wont hurt either) PRT 101

Introduction to Process Technology Chapter 9 Control Loops: Primary Sensors, Transmitters & Transducers Transmission of Process Variables

Pneumatic Transmission Pneumatic lines were often used within hazardous atmospheres Limited to 600 feet at most Longer pipe runs = more air volume needed Compressibility of more air impairs accuracies Need to convert to electric signals to go beyond.

Most common end elements are pneumatic actuators on valves. Preferred in hazardous environments (all valves leak, especially through packing around stem) P/I & I/P Transducers are needed to do convert signal media. Source of Air for Transmitter Measured variable

modulates from (obsolete) (obsolete) Flapper-Nozzle Pneumatic Transmitter 20 psi input

Flapper at X = 15 psi out Flapper at Y = 3 psi out Between = modulated signal 3 - 15 psi output Simple Current Transmitter Simple Voltage Transmitter

I/P Transducer In this case: Sensor and Transducer are one and the same Current to Pneumatic Transducer aka Signal Converter

Field draws flapper closer or farther from nozzle Input 3 15 psi Output

Pulse Telemetering For long distances Transmitted in terms of TIME, not magnitude of value. Cam Follower (rider) positioned by Bourdon Pressure. Cam rotates at constant speed (synchronous motor). Rider against cam = switch open Shortest time = low pressure, etc.

Pulse increases proportionally with pressure Pulse transmitted in telephone type wire Electromagnet in receiver via gears to position pointer Frequency (Tone) Telemetering Converts to frequency For long distances

Transmitted in terms of FREQUENCY, not magnitude of value. Frequency is proportional to value

Converts back to current Frequency Telemetering Signal is in pure audible tone Duration is proportional to value Frequency is proportional to value

Can be sent by telephone wire, microwave, or coaxial cable Frequency Telemetering Frequency is proportional to value BASIC INSTRUMENT CHANNEL PROCESS

DETECTOR TRANSDUCER INSTRUMENT CHANNEL AMPLIFIER TRANSMITTER ALARMS

REMOTE INDICATION REMOTE CONTROL DEFINITIONS RANGE - The area between the limits within which a quantity is measured. SPAN

-25 - The mathematical difference between the upper range and the lower range values. 0 100

DEFINITION ELEVATED ZERO RANGE - The range in which the zero value of the measured variable is greater than the lower range value. -25

0 RANGE 100 DEFINITION SUPPRESSED

ZERO RANGE - The range in which the zero value of the measured variable is less than the lower range value. 0 25

100 RANGE EXAMPLE Measured Variable Range -25

Range -25 to 100 Lower Range Value -25

0 100 Upper Range Value 100

Span 125 EXAMPLE Range 100 to

180 psi Lower Range Value 100 psi Upper Range

Value 180 psi Span 80 psi EXAMPLE Measured Variable Range

20 60 Range Lower Range Value

20 to 100 20 100 Upper Range

Value 100 Span 80 EXAMPLE Measured Variable Range

-100 -60 Range Lower Range Value

-100 to -20 -100 -20 Upper Range

Value -20 Span 80 PRT 101

Introduction to Process Technology Chapter 10 Control Loops: Controllers & Final Control Element Overview Controller types Mechanical (Link or Linkage)

Pneumatic (Analog) 3-15 psi Electronic (Analog) 4-20 mA; 1-5 VDC Electronic (Digital) Many different proprietary systems New versions of Ethernet emerging

Live Zero Zero reading is 3 with 3-15 psi (3=0% of scale) 4 with 4-20 mA (4=0% of scale) Does 0= lowest value or broken sensor or controller? Calibration easier with positive value vs. vacuum or negative polarity source.

Control Loop Pneumatic Controller Faceplate integral to control mechanism Front of Controller Panel

Auto/Manual Switch Local and/or remote setpoint indicator Setpoint adjustment knob Manual output knob Manual output indicator Process variable indicator Setpoint indicator Setpoint variable Tag number

Controller Front Panel (Faceplate) Object: To Align PV & SP Clothesline Indication Around on the side, not visible unless controller was slid partially from the case, but still operating, would be

the tuning controls This is so that unauthorized people can not tamper with the tuning settings Walk up to Panel to Operate Group View is for Operating

Need to see and adjust PV, SP, Output, Auto/Manual Need to view PV, deviation alarms Tag & title of loops & group On/off; sequence step; etc.

Group View of Controllers Alarm List Above Video view of new DCS systems often mimics traditional faceplates Faceplates may be adjustable in content when using video screens in newer DCS systems of some brands Minimal Normal

Expanded Point Detail View to Access Parameters Like sliding instrument out from case to adjust tuning, alarm settings, etc. On screen, also tuning chart, to/from wire list, hold value, SP ramp/clamp, etc.

Algorithms are used in controllers tp perform specific functions Stepwise procedure used to accomplish a specific task Often a logical or mathematical procedure expressed in the form of an equation Three Basic Control Algorithms

Proportional Control Integral Control Derivative Control Control Actions Change in process Proportional (gain)... Integral (reset)...

Derivative (rate)... Normally in combination... Remember our Pneumatic Controller? Let us look at the control mechanism Pneumatic Control Element

20 psi 0-100% motion 3-15 psi Interactive Pneumatic 3-mode Control Proportional (Gain)

Air Relay Technology: Resistor Capacitor Vacuum Tube Transistor Rate

(Derivative) Reset (Integral) P?P? 3-Mode (PID) Interaction Interactive:

P vs. Independent: X I D

P X I D Analogy!!

Electric or Pneumatic Controller: 3-mode { Proportional (Gain) Integral (Reset) Derivative (Rate)

Principles same for pneumatic, electro-mechanical, electric, electronicuntil the microprocessor! Equations differed with each vendor Each mode interacted with the others Required different chassis for P, PI, PD, PID Change from one to another costly, so was rarely done! PID Equations Differ with Each Vendor Perhaps three categories in simplest form:

exact names vary according to manufacturer No standard exists among vendors Vendors may have different equations/different vintages

Many variations of filtering & non-filtering Greatest differences in use of derivative NO two alike! Bumpless transfer between Auto & Man Do to want to bump the output to process Switch between when PV=SP Adjust SP

Modern models have Setpoint Tracking Local Controllers Physically mounted near Process with other instruments in

the loop Remote Controllers Controller is some distance from process, sensor, final element (valve) Usually needs

transducers for signal Split Range Controller Same single controller output operates two different final elements (valves)

which likely operate in coordination Cascade Control Action One controller output is input

to set point of another Senses temperature Controller output is the setpoint to second controller (signal cascades) Which controls Flow of heat to

process Ratio Controllers Output of controller from uncontrolled flow provides setpoint signal to a secondary controller to maintain a specific

proportion (ratio) of the controlled flow with the uncontrolled flow Various Final Control Elements

Fluid control valves Dampers Clutches

Brakes Motors Fans Guide Vanes And many others Manipulated Stream = Controlled Stream Controlling rate where controlled

variable is same stream as manipulated variable Manipulated Controlled Manipulated Stream Controlled Stream

Temperature of product exit Heat Source is controlling a different flow used as heat source

Product Manipulated Controlled HUH?

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