Introduction to Information Systems

Introduction to Information Systems

INFORMATION SYSTEMS Overview Information Systems and Management An Introduction to Information Systems Information System: An information system is a set of

interrelated components that collect, manipulate, store data and disseminate information and provide a feedback mechanism to monitor performance. What is an Information System? An organized combination of people, hardware, software, communications networks, and

data resources that collects data, transforms it, and disseminates information. Data Vs. Information Data: Raw unorganized facts Information: A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves.

Defining and organizing relationships among data creates information. Information Concepts Process: A set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined outcome. Knowledge: An awareness and understanding of a set of information and ways that information

can be made useful to support a specific task or reach a decision The Value of Information The value of Information is directly linked to how it helps decision makers achieve their organizations goals.

System A system is a set of elements or components that interact to accomplish goals. CBIS Hardware: Computer Equipment Software:

Computer Programs Databases: An organized collections of facts CBIS Telecommunications: Electronic transmission of signals for communication

Networks: Distant electronic communication Internet: Interconnected Networks Intranet: Internal Corporate Network Extranet: Linked Intranets CBIS People

Procedures: Strategies, policies, methods, and rules for using a CBIS. Business Information Systems Electronic and Mobile Commerce E-Commerce:

Any business transaction executed electronically M-Commerce: Transactions conducted anywhere, anytime Relies on wireless communications TPS and ERP

Transaction business related exchange Evidence of a business event Transaction Processing System (TPS) A system which records completed business transactions Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) A set of integrated programs for managing the entire business operations

Business Information Systems Management Information System: A system used to provide routine information to managers and decision makers Decision Support System: A system used to support problemspecific decision making Specialized Business I.S. Artificial Intelligence (AI):

A field in which the computer takes on the characteristics of human intelligence Expert System: A system that gives a computer the ability to make suggestions and act like an expert in a particular field. Knowledge Base: The collection of data, rules, procedures, and relationships that

must be followed to achieve value or the proper outcome. Virtual Reality: The simulation of a real or imagined environment that can be experienced visually in three dimensions

Systems Development Systems Development: The activity of creating or modifying existing business information systems Systems Investigation and Analysis Understand the problem and potential solutions

Systems Design, Implementation, Maintenance and Review Determine how the new system will meet business needs Put the new system into operation Ensure the system continues to meet changing business needs

Information Systems in Society Security, Privacy, Ethical Issues in Information Systems and the Internet. Computer Literacy: Knowledge of computer systems and equipment and the ways they

function General Information Systems Diagram Management Decisions (Environment) Data Input

Process Control Feedback Output Information Data:

Raw unorganized facts Information: Data organized in a meaningful way for the user (in consideration of the environment) Informal Information System Each organization has a unique culture, or fundamental set of assumptions, values, and ways of

doing things, that has been accepted by most of its members Environment: Business - other functional areas Computer hardware, software, other IS Sub System: Component of a larger system System Boundary:

Interaction with environment (user or other system) via an interface Information System Activities 1. Input of Data Resources 2. Process Data into Information 3. Output of Information Input of Data Resources

Data entry Editing Machine readable Source documents Formal record of a transaction

User interface How users interact with information system Optical scanning; menu; prompts; fill in blanks Process Data into Information

Calculate Compare Sort Classify Summarize The quality of the data must be maintained by a

continual process of correcting and updating activities Output of Information Transmit information to users Display; paper; audio Storage of data Data are retained in an organized manner Fields; records; files; data bases

Control of system performance Feedback must be monitored and evaluated to determine if the information system is meeting established performance standards Systems Applications in the Organization Decisions Unstructured Strategic

Tactical Management Levels Information Systems Senior Management

ESS DSS Knowledge and Data Worker GIS, CAD/CAM, OAS Middle

Management Technical Lower Management (Operational) Functions Structured

MIS TPS Buy Make Sell

Keep Track INFORMATION SYSTEMS Overview Information Systems and Management

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