Introduction to Biotechnology

Introduction to Biotechnology

BIOL 3340 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Microbial Cell Structure Eucaryotes Eucaryotic Cell Structure membrane-delimited nuclei membrane-bound organelles that perform

specific functions more structurally complex than procaryotic cell generally larger than procaryotic cell Size, Shape, and Arrangement of Eucaryotes Yeast cell and Protozoan cell

Functions of the cell organelles Eucaryotic Membranes

Includes: animal & plant cells, fungi & protists (protozoa & algae). Have a true nucleus with DNA DNA is enclosed in a membranebound nucleus membrane-enclosed cell organelles

Eucaryotic Membranes the fluid mosaic model is based on eucaryotic membranes They are enriched with lipids and proteins They participate in a variety of cell processes such as cell movement and transduction

Cell Structure of Eucaryotes- animal cell Cell Structure of Eucaryotes- Plant Cell Eucaryotic membrane Cytoplasm

Many organelles of eucaryotic cells lie in the cytoplasmic matrix The cytoplasmic matrix -vast network of interconnected filaments.

Filaments that form the cytoskeleton: microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. plays role in both cell shape and cell movement ..Cytoplasmic Matrix Viscous

aqueous suspension of proteins, nucleic acid, dissolved organic compounds, mineral salts Network of protein fibers similar to the eukaryotic cytoskeleton.

Cytoplasmic Inclusion Bodies: granules of organic or inorganic material that are stockpiled by the cell for future use. some are enclosed by a single-layered

membrane Microfilaments minute protein filaments, 4 to 7 nm in diameter scattered within cytoplasmic matrix or organized into networks and parallel arrays

composed of actin protein involved in cell motion and shape changes Microtubules shaped like thin cylinders ~ 25 nm in diameter composed of - and -tubulin

help maintain cell shape involved with microfilaments in cell movements participate in intracellular transport processes The Endoplasmic Reticulum irregular network of branching and fusing membranous tubules and

flattened sacs (cisternae s., cisterna). rough ER ribosomes attached synthesis of secreted proteins by ERassociated ribosomes smooth devoid ER

of ribosomes synthesis of lipids by ER-associated enzymes The Endoplasmic Reticulum The Endoplasmic Reticulum The ribosomes -sites of synthesis of some

proteins that it transports transports proteins, lipids, and other materials within cell. Ribosomes in the eukaryotic cytoplasm are

larger than prokaryotic ribosomes Ribosomes are also found within mitochondria and chloroplasts; the ribosomes of these organelles are very similar in structure & size to prokaryotic ribosomes

Mitochondria site where ATP is generated by electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation ..Mitochondria Chloroplasts

site of photosynthetic reactions Nucleus Nucleus: membrane-bound structure that houses genetic material of eucaryotic

cell Chromatin dense fibrous material within nucleus contains DNA condenses to form chromosomes during cell division

Nucleus Nuclear envelope: double membrane structure that delimits nucleus penetrated by nuclear pores pores allow materials to be transported

into or out of nucleus Nucleolus: important in ribosome synthesis Other cell inclusions Golgi bodies- involved in modification, packaging, and

secretion of materials Lysosomes- membrane-bound vesicles found in most eucaryotes involved in intracellular digestion Vacuoles-transport system Reproduction Eucaryotes: asexual reproduction transverse

fission budding spore sexual production

reproduction involves union of compatible nuclei followed by formation of sexual spores Bibliography http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method https://files.kennesaw.edu/faculty/jhendrix/

bio3340/home.html Lecture PowerPoints Prescotts Principles of Microbiology-Mc Graw Hill Co. http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/ images;_ylt=A0geu_aaKX5JiBkAeUBXNyo A?ei=UTF-8&p=rough%20endoplasmic %20reticulum&fr2=tab-web&fr=yfp-t501-s

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