Interstellar Probe Mission Design

KISS Workshop on the Science and Enabling Technologies for the Exploration of the Interstellar Medium Post Workshop: Summary of Action Items Leon Alkalai, Ed Stone, Lou Friedman Co-Organizers Plan Towards Workshop #2 January 12th, 2015 ALL: Next KISS workshop January 12th, 2015; mark your calendars; book your travel Assume 3 full days. ALL: review Action Item list (in this presentation) and provide any comments back to Leon Alkalai cc: Nitin Arora. Science Team: Goals, Objectives due by November 17 th, 2014 Mission Team: Two Team X studies: Early December 2014

Technology Team: updated briefings at the workshop January 12 th, 2015 Emerging Capabilities Team: present results at workshop January 12 th, 2015 ALL: KISS Final Study Report due March 15 th, 2015 ALL: Proposal for Technology Development Plan to KISS, April 1 st, 2015 ALL: KISS funding opportunity, October 1st, 2015 Overview of Action Items 1. Science STM: Science Objectives, Measurements and Feasibility Assessment Science / measurement Interactive Tool 2.

Two Team X studies 3. 1) 100 AU in < 10 years; grand tour KBO + Centaurs; 2) Swarm of small probes into the LISM Technology Assessment Miniaturization: Impact of Cubesats on the future of Space Exploration; instruments Propulsion: Solar Sails (dual use, material testing, new deployment) Communications: Optical or RF communication systems Thermal management: thermal shield for perihelion burn Avionics: Reliability, miniaturization, re-configurability using FPGA 4.

Engineering Feasibility Study 5. 1) Gravitational lensing; 2) Beamed energy; 3) Solar Sail scaling and perihelion burn Public Outreach Formulate Plan; Public engagement; Explore avenue for non-governmental funds AI-1: Science action item team leads In-Situ Science: Lead: Gary Zank Members: Merav Opher, Dick Mewaldt, Seth Redfield, Ralph McNutt, Paul Goldsmith, Jamie Rankin, Elena P., Adam Michael Topics: Plasma ISM, Neutral, Magnetic Field, Turbulence, Dust, ENA and backscatter Lyman-alpha KB Science, Zodiacal Dust: Lead: Mike Brown Members: Mark Swain, Mike Werner, Mike Shao Topics: KBOs, Dust detection and characterization, Understand utility of KB in terms of planetary formation Astrometry, Astrophysics: Lead: Mike Shao Members: Mark Swain, Slava Turyshev, Claudio Maccone, Mike Werner, Jared Males, Seth Redfield, Freeman Dyson Topics: Extra galactic parallaxes, masses of asteroids, centaurs,

Exoplanets search, orphan planets search AI-1: Science action item: each team Define: Science goals STM: Science Traceability Matrix approach Quantify science objectives: what is the value of science? additional description requirements, how you meet them? Measurements and instrument requirements: Miniaturization Key performance parameters and system requirements Due date: November 17th, 2014 Will be reviewed at workshop January 12th, 2015 AI-1: Science Visualization Tool Lead: Nitin Arora, Jamie, Elena, etc. Show log scale, linear scale ( to and from ) Show Voyager and other spacecraft Polar plot (top view) showing various local ISM regions

Highlight various science disciplines (planetary, Heliophysics, astrophysics etc.) Include interactive behavior Understand and develop educational aspects of the tool Illustrate KBOs in some scientific detail Combined science case: Heliophysics, Astrophysics, Planetary Science Follow up with Ellan Stofan, NASA CS 3D navigation AI-1: Science Visualization Tool (draft) Interstellar wind Heliopause TerminationShock Pr ist in e IS M Asteroid s KB, Local Dust, Zodiacal ,

Cosmology, Inner Oort cloud Hydrogen wall structure CIRB observation Bow shock/ wave CMB observations Interstellar Relay satellite, Interstellar Dust Foreground emissions, Parallax science, Cosmic rays Gravitational tests, Neutrals, Ions, Magnetic field, Organics, Turbulence, Dust Solar Gravitational lens Neutrino Gravitational lens 0 100 200 300 400 500

600 700 Distance (AU) Investigate possibility of LOG scale 800 900 1000 1100 AI-1: Science Visualization Tool (draft) Interstellar wind Heliopause TerminationShock Pr ist in e IS M Asteroid s KB, Local Dust,

Zodiacal , Cosmology, Inner Oort cloud Hydrogen wall structure CIRB observation Bow shock/ wave Relay satellite, Interstellar Dust Foreground emissions, Parallax science, Cosmic rays Gravitational tests, Neutrals, Ions, Magnetic field, Organics, Turbulence, Dust Solar Gravitational lens, CMB Neutrino Gravitational lens 0 100 200 300 400 500

600 700 Distance (AU) Investigate possibility of LOG scale 800 900 1000 1100 AI-2: Team-X Mission Study 1 100 AU in ~10 years Assume SLS lift capability Investigate Trajectory options: Jupiter flyby to achieve perihelion; Direct Jupiter flyby escape Analogy to Grand tour: Centaur and KBO flyby Critical event analysis: Perihelion burn:

Cruise phase science team: Mark Swain, Mike Shao, Seth, Jarred, Mike W., Phil Lubin Credible design for a 2-3 stage solid (SRM) with heat shield Thermal Protection System scaling AI-2: Team-X Mission Study 2 Members: Paullette, Dick M., Merav Opher, Manan, Darrell, Jamie, Freeman, Leon, Nitin, Adam Swarm of probes to cross the heliopause How small can you make the probe? How many? How fast can they escape ? Miniaturization revolution CubeSat analogy for interstellar missions AI-2: Possible Tech Demo missions Solar Reflector to simulate Low Perihelion Test solar heat shield Test SRM inside the shield at elevated temperatures

Solar sail material testing Increase sail loading (g/m2) and sail specific weight Packaging, origami deployment Part of the test in Earth orbit Some ground testing possible (France) Small Spacecraft Lifetime Mission Long distance Com. Kuiper Belt and beyond ( target 100 AU in 10 years ) Small instruments when possible REP

SRM at Jupiter Hibernation Laser-Sail / Beam propulsion Demo Small Sail + Laser from earth or small-sat AI-3: Technology Assessment Update Miniaturization update, Rob Staehle Propulsion, Les Johnson Solid rocket motor lifetime qualification and near perihelion burn Light weight, Dual use sails; Sail material testing for close solar pass

Radio Isotope based Electric Propulsion/ Low power long life Thrusters Telecommunications, Abhi Biswas Update on CubeSats, integrated avionics and instruments Deployable / Inflatables antennas; Sail as an antenna; Solid state Optical comm. Thermal / Shield, Ralph McNutt Solar heat shield (test Carbon-Carbon shield with new configurations) Magnetic and Electro static Shielding; Thermal management Avionics: G&NC, Reliability and Resilience, Leon Alkalai FPGAs, Hibernation, Wafer scale systems; Systems on a chip; Radiation tolerance AI-4: Engineering Feasibility Study: Beamed Energy Engineering Study

Members: Phil Lubin, Lou Friedman Provide a reasonable engineering implementation concept Propose a technology demonstration concept Present results at the January workshop AI-4: Engineering Feasibility Study: Gravitational Lensing Members: Jared, Slava, Caludio, Mike (Shao), Mark Swain Define science objectives? Can it be done and how? What would the image of the Earth look like? Identify other engineering constraints. AI-4: Engineering Feasibility Study Solar Sail Trade Study Members: Lou, Les, Darren, Nathan Barnes, Manan How close to the Sun can you go? What is the best sail density or sail specific weight possible? What would it take to design a 150 m (radius) Sail ? How much would the sail + sail sub-system weigh ? Dual use question: other uses of Solar Sail ? AI-5: Public Outreach Plan Study lead: Mae Jemison, Lou Friedman, Leon Alkalai Public outreach: crossing of Voyager, Scientific American, National Geographic, NPR Work with JPL Blaine Baggett to come up with ideas, Minute Physics outreach a series of lectures on youtube Target and work with existing groups like 100YSS program and others

Ideas for Crowdsourcing a first mission or tech demo mission Present ideas at the January workshop AI-6: Develop a plan to (inform) Influence the Decadal Surveys Study Lead: Paul Goldsmith, Mike Werner Target Decadal Surveys: Astrophysics Planetary Heliophysics AI-6: Grand Vision of a Grand Challenge Interstellar Exploration Program Technology Technology Demonstration, Demonstration, Science Science Discovery Discovery Technology Technology Demonstrati Demonstrati on on Missions Missions 11 10 10 AU AU Small

Small Explorers Explorers LISM LISM and and Heliosphere Heliosphere Multi-Probes Multi-Probes 55 100 100 AU AU Medium Medium Scale Scale Missions Missions 200 200 300 300 AU AU Large Large Scale Scale Missions Missions 500 500 -- 600

600 AU AU Thousand Thousand AU AU challenge challenge 1000 1000 AU AU 50 50 years years Advanced Advanced Studies, Studies, Technology Technology Maturation, Maturation, Technology Technology Development Development

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