International

International

US and Regional Markets for Tilapia Carlos Pantoja, Ph.D. y Kevin Fitzsimmons, Ph.D. Universidad de Arizona Managua, NICARAGUA Augusto, 2003 Introduction Review

basic production guidelines (stocking rates, feeding rates, and protein requirements) Worldwide tilapia trade The US Market Suppliers and consumers in the US Opportunities to expand markets Tilapia trade Currently

second in volume to carps Prediction: Tilapia will become most important aquaculture crop in this century Widest demand, no religious/cultural concerns, few environmental concerns More genetic potential Greatest variety of production systems Ponds and cages Intensive tank culture Tanks in Arizona Tanks in California Intensive

raceways Raceway Systems Extensive raceways Intensive farms in buildings in cool climates Intensive farms with recirculation in greenhouses Integrated with crop irrigation Basic production parameters Fastest

growth between 25 and 29 degrees Growth slows with dissolved oxygen below 4 mg/l (4 ppm) Growth slows with ammonia above 0.25 mg/l In ponds, important to check dissolved oxygen level before first light in morning In cages, even more important to check dissolved oxygen during night and early in morning

Basic feeding parameters Crias need highest protein level 45 - 50% First feeding fry 0.02 - 2.0 g 2.0 - 35 g 45 - 50 % 35 - 40 %

32 - 35 % In hatchery with green water, protein can be lower In hatchery with very clean water, protein level should be maintained Basic feeding parameters Growout needs lowest protein level 28 - 30%

35 - 200g 200g harvest 31 - 33 % protein 28 30 % protein In pond with green water, protein can be lower In cages, even with green water, protein should be maintained close to 30% Genetic improvements in tilapia (From: Mair, G., 2002) Strain evaluations For

saline waters - Hybrid red strains are preferred For cage and pond culture Chitralada strain of O. niloticus originally from Thailand and further developed in Brasil. The GIFT strain of O. niloticus, originally developed in Philippines is most common in Philippines and China YY Super males - Genetically Male Tilapia Expected growth rates Fish weight (g)

Total days Expected growth rate 800 Fish weight (g) 700 600 500 Fry Fingerlings Phase 1 Phase 2

400 300 200 100 0 0 - 30 days 30 - 90 days 90 - 120 120 - 250 days International Research ISTA (next in Manila, Philippines, Sept 2004) International Symposia on Tilapia in Aquaculture

Established market demand Accepted in many national dishes Popular in many forms (live, whole, fillets, fresh and frozen, smoked, sashimi, fried skins) World Tilapia Production of 1,491,232 mt in 2002 Cuba 3% Colombia United States 3%

1% Brasil Costa Rica 5% 1% Indonesia 3% Ecuador 2% Egypt 4% Others 4% China 46%

Mexico 7% Thailand 7% Philippines 8% Taiwan Prov. 6% Major Tilapia Producers (for year 2002) China

- 706,000 metric tons / year Philippines - 122,277 mt / year Mexico - 110,000 mt / year Thailand - 100,000 mt / year Taiwan Province - 90,000 mt / year Brasil - 75,000 mt / year Indonesia - 50,000 mt / year Global Tilapia Sales (farmgate) For year 2000

US $ 1,706,538,200 (FAO Fisheries Circular No. 886) Estimated cost of production China - $0.70/kg Philippines, Indonesia, Brasil - $0.80/kg Thailand, Peru - $0.85/kg Ecuador, Honduras, Costa Rica - $0.90/kg

Mexico - $1.00/kg Taiwan Province - $1.05/kg US - $2.00/kg Canada - $2.10/kg Tilapia production in the Americas Production of Tilapia in the Americas 2002 (by volume) COSTA RICA 5% CUBA 12% JAMAICA 2% OTHERS 1%

BRAZIL 23% HONDURAS 4% COLOMBIA 7% ECUADOR 8% US 3% MEXICO 35% Mexico - 102,000 mt

Tilapia-shrimp farm in Sonora Pond Tilapia farm in Tamaulipas Markets in Mexico Strong domestic markets; on ice, fillets in grocery stores All domestic consumption - Will eventually develop

export markets. Raceway system, Tamaulipas Brasil - 75,000 mt Tilapia production & Markets in Brasil Production in Southeast and Northeast Red tilapia in Southeast for fee-fishing and

food Cage farms allowed in NE reservoirs. Tilapia leather industry Jump in interest with ISTA 5 in Rio. Developing export markets. Tilapia production in Ecuador 27,000 mt Replacing shrimp because of white spot and other shrimp diseases Using shrimp infrastructure

Exporting to US and EU Benefits to shrimp culture with polyculture Tilapia production in Ecuador and shrimp viral infections TILAPIA PRODUCTION IN ECUADOR 30,000 25,000 Production (mt) 20,000 15,000

10,000 White Spot 5,000 Taura IHHN 0 1990 1991 1992 1993

1994 1995 1996 Year 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

2002 Red strains of tilapia most popular for brackish polyculture systems Tilapia production in outside ponds with shrimp in covered ponds Costa Rica - 15,000 mt Acuacorporacion ponds in Caas, Costa Rica Jamaica - 5,200 mt Tilapia production 1980-2001 6000 Tonnes

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 80 82 84 86 88

90 92 Year 94 96 98 2000 2001 Nicaragua - 500 mt Survey

conducted and report by Neira y Engle La mayora de las fincas acucolas son pequeas, 0.01 ha, y son usadas principalmente para subsistencia. Mercado domestico para tilapia cultivada podra reducir riesgo de mercado. Nicaragua es un pas con gran potencial para el desarrollo de la acuicultura. From: Neira y Engle, 2001

Metodos de entrevistas Seleccin No. % Restaurantes Muestreo 118 100% Supermercados Censo 35 95% Puestos en mercados Censo 108 100% Entrevistas personales directas fueron conducidas en las regiones pobladas de Nicaragua en Agosto/Septiembre, 2000. From: Neira y Engle, 2001

Porcentaje de locales que venden tilapia Puestos en mercados Restaurantes 65% 16% 55% 21% 8% Supermercados 3% 26%

Venden tilapia No venden tilapia 22% 13% 29% 42% Vendan tilapia No venden pescado From: Neira y Engle, 2001 Razones dadas, por las cuales no se vende tilapia Porcentaje de respuestas

80 Sabe a tierra Contaminacin No hay demanda Actitudes negativas Almacenamiento 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

36 31 21 1717 Desconocimiento No hay oferta Slo marino Precio elevado 36 32 27 24

18 24 21 0 Restaurantes Supermercados Puestos From: Neira y Engle, 2001 Probabilidad de que se venda tilapia cultivada el

siguiente ao Porcentaje de respuestas 100 90 91 80 70 60 64 Muy probable Un tanto probable Muy improbable

Un tanto improbable No sabe/No responde 53 50 40 30 20 10 0 Restaurantes Supermercados Puestos

From: Neira y Engle, 2001 Formas preferidas de los productos Restaurantes Puestos en mercados 27% 54% 20% 46% 53%

Supermercados 4% 60% 36% Entero fresco eviscerado Filete fresco Filete congelado From: Neira y Engle, 2001 Porcentaje de respuestas Comparacin de los volumenes actuales de venta de tilapia con respecto al ao anterior 70

Ms Igual Menos No sabe 60 56 50 40 40

44 30 33 20 21 19 10 0 Restaurantes Supermercados

Puestos From: Neira y Engle, 2001 Consistencia en la oferta de tilapia Porcentaje de respuestas 100 Oferta consistente Oferta inconsistente 80 60

70 68 56 40 20 0 32 Restaurantes 44 30 Supermercados

Puestos From: Neira y Engle, 2001 Porcentaje de respuestas Problemas mencionados con la inconsistencia en la oferta de tilapia Cantidad insuficiente Abastecimiento inconstante Otros problemas 100 80 93

84 60 60 40 20 0 40 21 Restaurantes 20 Supermercados

20 26 Puestos From: Neira y Engle, 2001 Tamao promedio ponderado de tilapia al mayoreo 2 Entero fresco eviscerado Size (lb)

1.5 1 1.4 1 0.5 0.3 0 Filete fresco Puestos 0.4 Restaurantes

0.6 Supermercados From: Neira y Engle, 2001 Precio promedio ponderado de tilapia al mayoreo 2 Entero fresco eviscerado Filete fresco $/lb 1.5 1.3

1 0.5 0 1.4 0.9 0.7 0.4 Puestos Supermercados Restaurantes From: Neira y Engle, 2001

Restaurantes 2.5 $/lb 2.0 Tilapia Corvina Guapote Pargo rojo Tilapia compite con

1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Entero fresco eviscerado Filete fresco $/lb Supermercados 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0

0.5 0.0 Tilapia Corvina Entero fresco eviscerado Guapote Pargo rojo Filete fresco Entero eviscerado y Filete

Guapote Pargo rojo Corvina From: Neira y Engle, 2001 CONCLUSIONES La tilapia silvestre ha penetrado en el mercado. Principales razones para no vender tilapia: sabor a tierra, falta de oferta, contaminacin del lago de Managua, y desconocimiento del

producto. Actitudes positivas hacia la tilapia: tamao y precio no son obstculos para vender tilapia. From: Neira y Engle, 2001 ...Conclusiones Ms de la mitad de los encuestados indicaron que era muy probable incluir tilapia cultivada. El principal obstculo: procedencia del producto (Lago de Managua), lo cual

result en la mayor venta de filetes. From: Neira y Engle, 2001 ...Recomendaciones Para penetrar en los restaurantes, tilapia cultivada debe posicionarse como un producto de alta calidad de exportacin y dirigirse al segmento de restaurantes no corrientes. Dada la preferencia por filetes en los supermercados y mercados populares, el precio al mayoreo probablemente ser bajo para que los cultivadores de tilapia puedan

competir. From: Neira y Engle, 2001 USA 9,000 mt Production in many states Mostly intensive systems, many recirculating Sales to ethnic markets as live fish, high value US Tilapia consumption - 2002

(133,140 mt of live weight) 140,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994

1992 1990 0 1988 20,000 1986 Metric tons 120,000 US. Tilapia imports 1993-2002

Sources of imported tilapia to US 120000 others Thailand 100000 Indonesia Colombia (LWEin metric tons) 80000 China

60000 Mexico Jamaica 40000 Ecuador 20000 Costa Rica Taiw an 0 1993 1994

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

US Tilapia supply (2002) 133,140 metric tons (live weight) NICARAGUA 0% HONDURAS 6% TAIWAN Prov. 24% INDONESIA 6% ECUADOR 16% PANAMA 1% US 7%

OTHER 2% CHINA 31% BRAZIL 0% COSTA RICA 7% $ 174,215,165 (2002) Value of Tilapia product forms imported to the U.S. 2002 $200,000,000 $180,000,000 $160,000,000 $140,000,000

$ US $120,000,000 Whole Frozen $100,000,000 Fillet Frozen Fillet Fresh $80,000,000 Fillet Frozen $60,000,000 $40,000,000 Fillet Fresh

$20,000,000 $0 1993 Whole Frozen 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

2000 2001 2002 $56,083,527 imports Jan-Mar 2003 $250,000,000 $200,000,000 $150,000,000 Whole Frozen Fillet Fresh Fillet TOTAL

$100,000,000 $50,000,000 $0 2003 Jan-Mar 2003 Imports should be > $224,000,000 2003 (est) US Consumption of tilapia $705,000,000

imports in last 10 years 2003 Imports should be > $224,000,000 US production of $30,000,000 at farm 1994 - 2003 US tilapia sales (imports and domestic) exceed one billion $$$ 2003 sales will be $250,000,000 Typical prices for Tilapia products sold in the U.S. (July 2003.) Whole live fish Whole frozen fish Whole fresh fish

Fillets, fresh Fillets, frozen Pondside/Processor $/kg 2.20 - 6.60 1.10 - 2.00 Wholesale $/kg Retail $/kg 2.80 - 7.50 2.00 - 2.35

4.00 - 10.00 2.20 - 5.00 2.30 - 3.00 3.00 - 4.00 4.00 - 9.00 5.00 - 7.00 4.80 - 6.75 6.00 - 8.00 5.50 - 7.80 8.00 - 12.00 7.00 - 11.50

Major tilapia market segments (US) Live fish (supplied by US growers) Fresh fillets (supplied by Ecuador, Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama) Frozen fillets (supplied by China, Indonesia) Sashimi grades (supplied by Taiwan) Major fresh fillet buyers (US) Major

restaurant chains (Darden Red Lobster, Bahama Breeze, Olive Garden Landry, Landrys, Joes CrabShack.) Major grocery chains (Safeway, Kroger, Winn-Dixie, Wegmans) Food service (supply small restaurant & grocery chains) - SYSCO, Fleming Co., Shamrock Brokers - most based in Miami, Tampa, Houston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York, Seattle Fresh tilapia fillet products Size

(under 3 oz, < 80 g) 3-5 oz, 80 - 135 g 4-6 oz, 110 - 160 g 5-7 oz, 135 - 190 g over 7 oz, > 190 g Skin on, shallow skin or deep skin Individual wrap, 2 or 5 kg package, master pack Fresh tilapia fillet product prices FOB Miami Size

(under 3 oz, < 80 g) $2.80 - 3.00/lb 3-5 oz, 80 - 135 g $3.00 - 3.10/lb 4-6 oz, 110 - 160 g $3.10 - 3.25/lb 5-7 oz, 135 - 190 g $3.15 - 3.40/lb over 7 oz, > 190 g $3.35 - 3.55/lb Variation in prices due to skinning, packaging, volumes and history with buyer Additional variations with terms of payment Expanding markets Quality

control and assurance Advertising Product placement Endorsements New recipes and product forms Quality control and assurance National standards HACCP (Hazard Analysis at Critical

Control Points) Industry standards Buyer standards Other (NGOs) Advertising Direct retail sales www.tilapia.org Product placement

Saving Faith Murder mystery Detective fixes elegant tilapia dinner to seduce the beautiful blonde. Endorsements Dear Kevin,

I recently began using farm raised Tilapia fillets. I buy these in individual vacuum sealed packages in one pound bags at Wal-Mart. My husband has diabetes and we both are very weight conscious. This fish is the perfect food item for us, I love the way it is packaged, just use what I need for one meal. It is reasonably priced, always available in the market and consistently high quality. I LOVE THE PRODUCT!!!! Marian Birnie Aug. 12, 2001 New recipes New recipes Sashimi

Fried tilapia skins International/US Supply and Demand TRENDS Supply of fillets primarily from China, Southeast Asia, Ecuador and Central America. Demand for live fish needs to expand beyond Asian markets With rapid increases in supply, demand must increase at least as fast to support price.

Major Tilapia Producers in International Trade China - whole frozen, IQF fillets Ecuador - fresh fillets Taiwan - whole, IQF, sashimi South & Central America - fresh fillets Indonesia - IQF fillets Thailand - IQF fillets

Current International Market Trends Increase in demand for all forms of tilapia Demand increase will be greatest for fresh fillets Prices have been constant for several years and will remain stable, will not increase with inflation Changes and Predictions Further

intensification in virtually every country Changes and Predictions US production will increase slowly, intensifying current production methods Changes and Predictions Production will be 75% Oreochromis niloticus, 20% Red strains, O. aureus and O. mossambicus mostly for

hybridization Changes and Predictions Production will be 50% intensive ponds, 30% cages, 10% intensive recirculating and tank systems, 10 % other Changes and Predictions Leather goods from skin will become a significant contributor to profitability

Changes and Predictions Processing and "value-adding" will intensify in producing countries Changes and Predictions Polyculture with shrimp will become common in most shrimp farming areas (already practiced in Thailand, Philippines, Mexico, US, Ecuador, Peru, Eritrea) Tilapia - shrimp polyculture

Floating cage Hapa (net pen) Changes and Predictions World tilapia production (1,265,780 mt in 2000, FAO) will reach 1,500,000 mt in 2003 and 2,000,000 mt by 2010 2003 sales over $2 billion 2010 sales over $4 billion Muchas gracias!

Preguntas? Costo total unitario en dos escenarios en Honduras Honduras Finca ( 24 ha) Finca ( 6 ha) Costo total Filetes Entero eviscerado $2.44/lb $0.86/lb $0.78/lb From: Neira y Engle, 2001

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