International Migration: Trends and Institutional Frameworks ...
By Prof. John O. Oucho 1. INTRODUCTION: Nature and Scope of the Study Size of and diversity in Africa necessitate selective coverage African countries as origins, transit and destinations The study adopts the UN regionalisation of Africa: EA,MA,NA, SA and WA Typologies of International Migration Permanent settlers. Labour migration. Refugees and asylum seekers. Undocumented/illegal/clandestine/unauthorised. Irregular migration. Itinerant traders and business persons.
1. Introduction cont... Limitations and Gaps: Data inadequacies, lack of migration surveys, lack of reseerch institutions and reseachers... Lack of explicit migration policies Institutional Frameworks: Thrust on migration management, not control, RECs and RCPs Outline of the Study: 1) Multi-level surge in migration work; 2)Institutional frameworks guiding international migration in Africa; 3)Migrants attributes in migration policies; 4) Contemporary issues in migration policies at REC and national levels; and 5) Conclusion. 2. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES AND ARRANGEMENTS 2.1
Origin-Destination Links of Migration Immigration and Emigration without policy prescriptions in Countries of Origin (see Table 2). Policy and Legislative Measures in Countries of Destination: IOMs work since 2000 instructive [WM]. Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements [Mediterranean basin, Commonwealth Code of Practice for the International Recruitment of Health Workers; MIDA] see Table 3. 2. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES AND ARRANGEMENTS cont. 2.2
International Instruments and Migrant Rights (see Table 4) Refugee Conventions and Protocols: International, OAU/AU (mostly signed, ratified and implemented) Migrant Workers and Members of their Families: Unpopular both in the South and the North; sugned by only 16 of African countries Conventions and Protocols on Irregular Migration, 2000: Second most popular in Africa but implementation is questionable. 2. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES AND ARRANGEMENTS cont. 2.3 International Migration in the context of
Regional Integration (see Table 5 for RECs) The Quest for Protocol on Free Movement of Flow Phenomena: People, labour, goods, capital, services (see Table 6). The status and challenges of free movement Protocols in African RECs: Visa free entry easiest phase, other phases controversial; Member States concurrence without knowledge of the citizen mood a contradiction. Marching towards the AEC and the Ultimate Protocol: 6 phases of the process: phases 1-3 - economic integration matters (1997-2017); phase 4 liberalisation of the African Common Market: harmonisation of trade policies and other sectoral policies and realisation of all phases of FMOP protocol (2017-2019); phase 5 consolidation of the AEC (2019-2023); and phase 6 comprehensive integration with common institutions in place (2023-2028) 2. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES AND ARRANGEMENTS cont.
2.4 Migrant Rights in Gender and Health Migrant Rights through the Gender prism [UN (1995) International Migration Policies and the Status of Women] had no paper on African female migration. Issues confounding female migrants rights: (i) stereotyping them as unskilled migrants; (ii) linking ageing in Western societies to feminised care labour; and (iii) restrictions imposed on family immigration (income requirements for family reunification, etc.) Migrant Rights in Health Access: Case study of Botswana on migrants and refugees access to health services (Oucho and Ama, 2009). 2. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES AND ARRANGEMENTS cont. 2.5
Perspectives of Migration and Development Brain Drain, Circulation and Brain Gain: From brain drain as a loss to Africa to brain gain Understand the changing migration configurations in Africa The African Diaspora and Homeland Development Misinterpretation of diaspora in Africa Temporal and spatial dimensions of the African diaspora Is there an African diaspora (AUs 6 th region) or nationalist and other types of the African diaspora? [see Table 9 for a typology]. Diaspora remittances: monetary and social [Peggy Levitt (1996) and others] Return and Capacity-enhancement Schemes: From RQAN and TOKTEN to MIDA Return Migration and of Prospects of Physical and Virtual Return: Return to what? (Skeldon, 2005); types of return not all positive (Cerase, 1974) Dual Citizenship: The Balancing Act at Destinations and Origins
2. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES AND ARRANGEMENTS cont. 2.6 Bilateral and Multilateral Coordination and Cooperation EU-AU initiatives The AU African Migration Policy Framework for Africa, 2006 [see Table 10]. Regional Consultative Processes (RPCs): MIDSA, MIDWA, MiGAD The IGAD Regional Migration Policy Framework (IGAD-RMPF): Now doing rounds in IGAD circles National Migration Policies (NMPs): Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa (mainly immigration), Zimbabwe.
3. MIGRANTS ATTRIBUTES IN MIGRATION POLICIES 3.1 Demographic Attributes in Migration Policies Importance of Age o o The SSA scenario: internal migration (20-29 years); international migration (the 30s onwards). South Africas centrality in Southern Africa: SAs Childrens Act 2005 adopts the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Migrants Sex in Migration Policies: Black migration to SA (Bohning,
1981) underlined male migration and ignored female migration (Dodson, 2001, 2005). 3. MIGRANTS ATTRIBUTES IN MIGRATION POLICIES cont... 3.2 Socio-economic Attributes in Migration Policies: Focus on Gender o The concept of feminisation of migration has mixed acceptance o From associational to autonomous migrants o Women as victims of migrant trafficking and smuggling [some domestic workers in the Middle East] 4. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN MIGRATION POLICES
4.1 Remittances in Migrant Origin-Destination Links Policies in the Countries of Origin of Migration: Tapping the migrant citizens remittances without migrants involvement Migrant showcases on the increase (Homecoming Fiestas, etc.) Policies in the Countries of Destination of Migration: Financial Action Task Force (FAFT): monitoring MTOs, remitter-recipient links) Anti- Money laundering and Combating Terrorism (AML/CFT) measures Need for bilateral and multi-lateral remittances-based policies Inter-linkages of Remittance Policies: UK-Nigeria Remittance Country Partnership (RCP) for facilitation of remittance packages The World Banks Future of African Remittances (FAR) to reduce the cost of remittances, encourage formal channels, etc.
4. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN MIGRATION POLICES cont... 4.2 o o o 4.3 Policies on Circular Migration and Transnationalism Policies and Partnerships: Origin-Destination Links
Intra-REC and inter-REC consultative meetings Facilitation of FMOP protocols and flexibility in inter-REC initiatives Co-development initiatives (e.g. France and Mali); EU-Africa Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development, Sirte, Libya, November 2006 . Consequences of the Global Economic Migration Flows Crisis for Virtually unexplored in Africa Changing migration policies in the destination countries Evidence of some return migration to Africa 5. CONCLUSION
International migration within and out of Africa is a continuum of the phenomenon but diverse types exist. The problem of paucity of international migration data. Unawareness of international instruments which their governments have signed and/or ratified. Inadequate knowledge of citizens perceptions of and attitudes to their governments and RECs moves on migration issues. African universities and research institutes should undertake relevant research, offer appropriate training, initiate sustained policy dialogue and cultivate viable networks which would foster regional integration-migration-tolerance linkages. 5. CONCLUSION cont. Diverse aspects of migration call for proper research to
yield baseline information which in turn would inform policy. ASANTE SANA!!! THANK YOU VERY MUCH!!!
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