Engagements Performed in Accordance with Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services Presented by David LaRosa, CPA, CGMA, CCIFP 1 David A. LaRosa, CPA, CGMA, CCIFP Shareholder, Mayer Hoffman McCann P.C. Director, CBIZ MHM, LLC With over twenty years of experience in public accounting, Mr. LaRosa is a licensed CPA in Pennsylvania & New Jersey who practices public accounting through Mayer Hoffman McCann P.C. (MHM), an
independent CPA firm. Mr. LaRosa is a Director in the Accounting group of CBIZ MHM, LLC. Based in Plymouth Meeting, Mr. LaRosa manages accounting and audit engagements for real estate developers, construction contractors, manufacturing companies, and employee benefit plans. Mr. LaRosa has passed the AICPA International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) certification and has taught various accounting topics locally and nationally for MHM. Along with his audit experience, Mr. LaRosa worked as an outsourced controller for a ten million dollar construction company performing all duties such as human resources, payroll, billing, payables and cash management. In addition, Mr. LaRosa has assisted construction clients with the preparation of their prequalification reports and internal cost accounting. A graduate of Loyola University in Maryland with a Bachelor of Business Administration in Accounting, Mr. LaRosa is an active member of the Construction Financial Management Association (CFMA); Associated Builders and Contractors (ABC); Suburban Contractors Association (SCA); American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) and the Pennsylvania Institute of Certified Public Accountants (PICPA). Mr. LaRosa is the Treasurer of ABC and serves on ABCs executive committee and board. 2
AR-C Section 60: General Principles Defining Professional Responsibilities Unconditional Requirements The accountant must comply with an unconditional requirement in all cases in which such requirements are relevant. SSARS uses the word must to indicate an unconditional requirement. Presumptively mandatory requirements - The accountant must comply with a presumptively mandatory requirement in all cases in which such requirements are relevant, except in rare circumstances. SSARS uses the word should to indicate a presumptively mandatory requirement. Exception would arise only when the procedure would be ineffective and the accountant must document the justification for the departure 3
General Principles (continued) Accountant should comply with relevant AICPA and state society ethical requirements Exercise professional judgment in SSARS engagements Engagement Quality Control Proper Acceptance and Continuance of Engagements. Do not accept if: a) Relevant ethical requirements will not be satisfied b) Information is likely to be unavailable or unreliable c) Accountant has cause to doubt management 4
General Principles (continued) Should obtain an agreement from management (preferably a written letter) that acknowledges and understands its responsibility for: I. Selection of the financial reporting framework II. Design, implementation, and internal control maintenance III. Preventing and detecting fraud IV. Entity complies with all laws and regulations V. Accuracy and completeness of the records VI. Access to all relevant information and persons within the entity of whom the accountant determines it is necessary to make inquiries 5 General Principles (continued)
Financial Statement Preparation and Presentation Requirements The identification of the applicable financial reporting framework, in the context of any relevant laws and regulations The preparation and fair presentation of the financial statements in accordance with that framework: a) A general purpose framework (a financial reporting framework designed to meet the common financial information needs of a wide range of users) b) A special purpose framework 6
AR-C Section 70: Preparation of Financial Statements 7 Preparation of Financial Statements Section applies when an accountant in public practice is engaged to prepare financial statements or prospective financial information Section does NOT apply when the accountant Is engaged to perform an audit, review, or compilation Solely for submission to taxing authorities For inclusion in written personal financial plans prepared by the accountant In conjunction with litigation services that involve pending or potential legal or regulatory proceedings
In conjunction with business valuation services 8 Preparation of Financial Statements (Continued) The Preparation Engagement A nonattest service Does not require the accountant to verify the accuracy or completeness of the information provided by management The accountant should ensure that a statement in included on each page of the financial statements, indicates, at a minimum, that no assurance is provided on the financial statements. Example statements a)
b) No assurance is provided on these financial statements These financial statements have not been subjected to an audit or review or compilation engagement, and no assurance is provided on them 9 Preparation of Financial Statements (Continued) The Preparation Engagement When preparing financial statements in accordance with a special purpose framework, the accountant should include a description of the financial reporting framework on the face of the financial statements or in a note to the financial statements Preparing Prospective Financial Information Do not exclude
a) an identification of the hypothetical assumptions b) a description of the limitations on the usefulness of the presentation Documentation of the engagement should be kept, minimum a) b) Engagement letter Copy of the financial statements the accountant prepared 10 Preparation of Financial Statements (Continued) Examples of
Applicability Preparation of financial statements prior to audit or review by another accountant To be presented alongside the entitys tax return Presentation alongside a financial plan Preparation of financial statement(s) with substantially all disclosures omitted Examples not applicable Engaged to perform audit, review,
or compilation Solely for submission to taxing authorities Preparation in conjunction with litigation services Drafting financial statement notes Entering G/L Entries (general bookkeeping) 11 AR-C Section 80: Compilation Engagements 12 Compilation Engagements
OBJECTIVE The objective of the accountant in a compilation engagement is to apply accounting and financial reporting expertise to assist management in the presentation of financial statements and report in accordance with this section without undertaking to obtain or provide any assurance that there are no material modifications that should be made to the financial statements in order for them to be in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework. 13 Compilation Engagements (Continued) THE COMPILATION ENGAGEMENT A compilation engagement is not an assurance engagement. A compilation engagement does not require the accountant to verify the
accuracy or completeness of the information provided by management or otherwise gather evidence to express an opinion or a conclusion on the financial statements. INDEPENDENCE NOT REQUIRED When the accountant is not independent with respect to the entity, the accountant should indicate the accountants lack of independence in a final paragraph of the accountants compilation report. The accountant is NOT required to disclose the reason for a lack of independence, but if the accountant elects to disclose a description about the reasons that accountants independence is impaired, the accountant should include all such reasons. 14 Compilation Engagements (Continued) COMPILATION PROCEDURES The accountant is not required to make inquiries or perform other procedures to verify, corroborate, or review
information supplied by the entity. However, the accountant may have performed such inquiries or procedures and the results of those inquiries or procedures, knowledge gained from prior engagements, or the financial statements themselves, may cause the accountant to become aware that information provided by management is incorrect, incomplete, or otherwise unsatisfactory. 15 Compilation Engagements (Continued) DOCUMENTATION IN A COMPILATION ENGAGEMENT The accountant should prepare documentation in connection with each compilation engagement in sufficient detail to provide a clear understanding of the work
performed which, at a minimum, includes the following: a) The engagement letter b) A copy of the financial statements c) A copy of the accountants report 16 Compilation Engagements (Continued) THE ACCOUNTANTS COMPILATION REPORT The accountants written report may become unattached from the financial statements. To minimize the possibility that a user of the financial statements may infer an unintended level of reliance on the financial statements, the accountant may request that management include a reference on each page of the financial statements to the accountants written report. Examples:
See Accountants Report See Accountants Compilation Report Note: Do the same for a review engagement 17 Compilation Engagements (Continued) SPECIAL PURPOSE FRAMEWORK Summary of significant accounting policies is not needed to explain differences from GAAP as long as the financial statements are not misleading to the expected users. Example income tax basis for real estate entities. When the financial statements are prepared in accordance with a regulatory or contractual-basis of
accounting, the accountant is required to describe the purpose for which the financial statements are prepared or refer to a note in the financial statements that contains that information. 18 Compilation Engagements (Continued) GENERAL PUBLIC EXPECTATIONS 19 AR-C Section 120: Compilation of Pro Forma Financial Information
20 Pro Forma Compilations OBJECTIVE The objective of the accountant in a compilation of pro forma financial information is to apply accounting and financial reporting expertise to assist management in the presentation of pro forma financial information and report in accordance with this section without undertaking to obtain or provide any assurance on the pro forma financial information. PRO FORMA FINANCIAL INFORMATION A presentation that shows what the significant effects on historical financial information might have been had a consummated or proposed transaction (or event) occurred at an earlier date. 21
Pro Forma Compilations (Continued) APPLICATION A compilation engagement on pro forma financial information may be undertaken as a separate engagement or in conjunction with a compilation, a review, or an audit of financial statements. PRO FORMA USES TO SHOW EFFECTS OF A TRANSACTION Business combination Change in capitalization
Disposition of a significant portion of a business Change in the form of business organization or status as an autonomous entity Proposed sale of securities and the application of the proceeds 22 Pro Forma Compilations (Continued) PRESENTATION Adequately disclosed pro forma financial information is labeled as such to distinguish it from other historical financial information. In addition, adequately disclosed financial information describes the transaction (or event) that is reflected in the pro forma financial information, the date on which the transaction (or event) is assumed to occur, the financial reporting framework of the financial statements, the source of the historical financial information on which it is
based, the significant assumptions used to develop the pro forma adjustments, and any significant uncertainties about those assumptions. indicates that the pro forma financial information should be read in conjunction with the related historical financial information and that the pro forma financial information is not necessarily indicative of the results (such as financial position, results of operations, and cash flows, as applicable) that would have been attained had the transaction (or event) actually taken place earlier. 23 Pro Forma Compilations (Continued) PROCEDURES Read the pro forma financial information and consider the following: Whether the underlying transaction (or event), the pro forma adjustments, the significant assumptions, and the significant uncertainties, if any, about those
assumptions have been appropriately described Whether the source of the historical financial information on which the pro forma financial information is based has been appropriately identified COMPILATION REPORT Include the following: a) b) c) A reference to the financial statements from which the historical financial information is derived and a statement as to whether such financial statements were subjected to an audit, review, or compilation report on the historical financial information A reference to any modification of the audit, review, or compilation report on the historical financial information A description of the nature and limitations of pro forma financial information
24 Pro Forma Compilations (Continued) Illustrative Compilation Report on Pro Forma Financial Information Management is responsible for the accompanying pro forma condensed balance sheet of XYZ Company as of December 31, 20X1, and the related pro forma condensed statement of income for the year then ended (pro forma financial information), based on the criteria in Note 1. The historical condensed financial statements are derived from the financial statements of XYZ Company, on which I (we) performed a compilation engagement, and of ABC Company, on which other accountants performed a compilation engagement. The pro forma adjustments are based on managements assumptions described in Note 1. (We) have performed a compilation engagement in accordance with Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services promulgated by the Accounting and Review Services Committee of the AICPA. I (we) did not examine or review the pro forma financial information nor was (were) I (we) required to perform any procedures to verify the accuracy or completeness of the information provided by management. Accordingly, I (we) do not express an opinion, a conclusion, nor provide any form of assurance on the pro forma financial information. The objective of this pro forma financial information is to show what the significant effects on the historical financial information might have been had the underlying transaction (or event) occurred at an earlier date. However, the pro
forma condensed financial statements are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations or related effects on financial position that would have been attained had the above-mentioned transaction (or event) actually occurred at such earlier date. [Additional paragraph(s) may be added to emphasize certain matters relating to the compilation engagement or the subject matter.] [Signature of accounting firm or accountant, as appropriate] [Accountants city and state] [Date of the accountants report] 25 AR-C Section 90: Review of Financial Statements 26 Reviews
OBJECTIVE The objective of the accountant when performing a review of financial statements is to obtain limited assurance as a basis for reporting whether the accountant is aware of any material modifications that should be made to the financial statements for them to be in accordance with applicable financial reporting framework, primarily through the performance of inquiry and analytical procedures. INDEPENDENCE The accountant must be independent of the entity when performing a review of the financial statements in accordance with SSARS. If during the performance of the review engagement, the accountant determines that the accountants independence is impaired, the accountant should withdraw from the engagement. 27 Reviews (Continued)
TYPES OF ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES Comparing the financial statements with comparable information for the prior period, giving consideration to knowledge about changes in the entitys business and specific transactions Consider plausible relationships both financial and, when relevant, nonfinancial information Comparing recorded amounts or ratios developed from recorded amounts to expectations developed by the accountant through identifying and using relationships that are reasonably expected to exist, based on the accountants understanding of the entity and the industry in which the entity operates Comparing disaggregated revenue data The accountant should develop expectations of recorded amounts or ratios and determine the amount of any differences of recorded amounts from expected values. Note: In certain circumstances, the accountant may perform procedures ordinarily performed in an audit. In such instances, the engagement remains a review, and
the accountant is not required to perform an audit of the financial statements. 28 Reviews (Continued) Comparing the financial statements with comparable information for the prior period, giving consideration to knowledge about changes in the entitys business and specific transactions Consider plausible relationships both financial and, when relevant, nonfinancial information Comparing recorded amounts or ratios developed from recorded amounts to expectations developed by the accountant through identifying and using relationships that are reasonably expected to exist, based on the accountants understanding of the entity and the industry in which the entity operates Comparing disaggregated revenue data The accountant should develop expectations of recorded amounts or ratios
and determine the amount of any differences of recorded amounts from expected values. 29 Reviews (Continued) REVIEW DOCUMENTATION Engagement Letter Management Representation Letter (Required for a review) Documentation from inquiries and analytical procedures and actions taken to address any findings and basis for final conclusions
Communications to management and others regarding fraud or noncompliance with laws and regulations Communications with management regarding the accountants expectation to include an emphasis-of-matter paragraph in the accountants review report Communication with other accountants that audited or reviewed the financial statements of significant components A copy of the reviewed financial statements and the accountants review report thereon References to documentation in other engagement files Documentation must be understood by an experienced accountant even if the partner performed all the review work 30 Thank You 31
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