Interactions of Skeletal Muscles

Interactions of Skeletal Muscles

Interactions of Skeletal Muscles Skeletal muscles work _________________________ or in _ Muscles only _______________(never push) As muscles shorten, the insertion generally moves toward the origin Muscles: Functional Groups

provide the major force for producing a specific movement oppose or reverse a particular movement Add force to a movement

Reduce undesirable or unnecessary movement synergists that immobilize a bone or muscles origin Naming Skeletal Muscles bone or body region associated with the muscle

e.g., the deltoid muscle (deltoid = triangle) Naming Skeletal Muscles maximus (largest), minimus (smallest), longus (long)

rectus (fibers run straight), transversus, and oblique (fibers run at angles to an imaginary defined axis) Naming Skeletal Muscles Number of _ biceps (two origins) and triceps (three origins) Location of _ named according to point of origin or insertion

flexor or extensor, as in the names of muscles that flex or extend, respectively Arrangement of Fascicles

fascicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscle sartorius spindle-shaped muscles biceps brachii short fascicles that attach obliquely to a central tendon running the

length of the muscle rectus femoris Arrangement of Fascicles fascicles converge from a broad origin to a single tendon insertion pectoralis major

fascicles are arranged in concentric rings orbicularis oris Figure 10.1 Major Skeletal Muscles: Anterior View

The 40 superficial muscles here are divided into 10 regional areas of the body Figure 10.4b Major Skeletal Muscles: Posterior View

The 27 superficial muscles here are divided into seven regional areas of the body Figure 10.5b Muscles: Name, Action, and Innervation

Name and description of the muscle be alert to information given in the name Origin and insertion Action best learned by _________________________________________ on ones

own body Nerve supply name of major nerve that innervates the muscle Muscles of the Scalp Epicranius (___________________________) bipartite muscle consisting of the:

Galea aponeurotica cranial ___________________________________ connecting above muscles These two muscles have alternate actions of pulling the scalp forward and backward Muscles of the Face

11 muscles are involved in lifting the eyebrows, flaring the nostrils, opening and closing the eyes and mouth, and smiling All are innervated by __________________________________ (facial nerve) Usually insert ______________________ (rather than bone), and adjacent muscles often fuse

Muscles of Mastication There are ____________________________________ of muscles involved in mastication Prime movers

Grinding movements All are innervated by _ Extrinsic Tongue Muscles Three major muscles that _ All are innervated by cranial nerve _

Muscles of the Neck: Head Movements sternocleidomastoid _____________________________ to head flexion suprahyoid and infrahyoid

sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles Head extension deep splenius muscles and aided by the _ Trunk Movements: Deep Back Muscles The prime mover of _ erector spinae

Erector spinae muscles consist of ______________________________ on each side of the vertebrae Lateral bending of the back unilateral contraction of these muscles

Other deep back extensors include the semispinalis muscles and the quadratus lumborum Figure 10.9d Trunk Movements: Short Muscles Four short muscles extend from one vertebra

to another These muscles are synergists in ________________________________ of the spine Muscles of Respiration: External Intercostals The primary function of deep thoracic muscles is to _

______________________ more superficial layer that lifts the rib cage increases thoracic volume to allow inspiration Muscles of Respiration: Internal Intercostals

deeper layer that aids in forced expiration most important muscle in inspiration

Muscles of the Abdominal Wall The abdominal wall is composed of four paired muscles external obliques, rectus abdominis), their fasciae, and their _

Fascicles of these muscles run at right and oblique angles to one another, giving the abdominal wall added strength Muscles of the Abdominal Wall In addition to forming the abdominal wall, these muscles: Are involved with ________________________ and rotation of the trunk

Help promote __________________________, defecation, ___________________________, vomiting, coughing, and _ Muscles of the Abdominal Wall Figure 10.11a Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

Figure 10.11b Extrinsic Shoulder Muscles Muscles of the thorax Anterior: pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior, and subclavius Posterior:

latissimus dorsi, trapezius muscles, levator scapulae, and rhomboids These muscles are involved with the _________________________________________ including elevation, depression, rotation, and lateral and medial movements Prime movers of shoulder elevation are the _

Extrinsic Shoulder Muscles Figure 10.13a Figure 10.13b Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Nine muscles cross the shoulder joint and

insert into the humerus Prime movers include: Pectoralis major Latissimus dorsi and posterior fibers of the deltoid Middle fibers of the deltoid

Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Rotator cuff muscles

Function mainly to reinforce the capsule of the shoulder Secondarily act as synergists and fixators Muscles Crossing the Elbow Forearm extension prime mover of forearm extension

weak synergist The Muscles Crossing the Elbow Forearm flexion chief forearm flexors

synergist The _ helps stabilize the _ Muscles of the Forearm Forearm muscle groups: those that cause _ those that move the _

These muscles insert via the flexor and extensor retinacula Most _ Most _ Muscles of the Forearm The pronator teres and pronator quadratus are not flexors, but _

The supinator muscle is a synergist with the biceps brachii in _ Muscles of the Forearm: Anterior These muscles are primarily flexors of the wrist and fingers Figure 10.15b, c

Muscles of the Forearm: Posterior These muscles are primarily extensors of the wrist and digits

Figure 10.16a Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand These small muscles: Lie ____________________________ of the hand none on the dorsal side

Move the ______________________________ and fingers Control precise movements Are the main abductors and adductors of the fingers Produce _ move the thumb toward the little finger Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand

Figure 10.18a Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand Figure 10.18b Finger and Thumb Movements Flexion

Thumb Fingers Extension Thumb Fingers Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand: Groups There are _____________________ groups of

intrinsic hand muscles The thenar eminence and hypothenar eminence each have a _ The midpalm muscles, the lumbricals and interossei, The _ abduct and adduct the fingers

Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand: Groups Figure 10.18c, d Muscles Crossing Hip and Knee Joints Most ___________________________________ muscles of the hip and thigh

Posterior compartment muscles of the hip and thigh extend _ flex _ The medial compartment muscles

These three groups are enclosed by the fascia lata Movements of the thigh at the Hip: Flexion and Extension The ball-and-socket hip joint permits Extension Adduction

Rotation The most important thigh flexors The medially located adductor muscles and sartorius assist in thigh flexion

Movements of the Thigh at the Hip: Flexion and Extension Thigh extension is primarily effected by the _

Forceful extension is aided by the gluteus maximus Movements of the Thigh at the Hip: Abduction and rotation assisted by antagonized by

lateral rotators Thigh adduction is the role of five adductor muscles

adductor _ adductor _ adductor _ the _ gracilis Movements of the Knee Joint The sole extensor of the knee

flex the _ and act as antagonists to the quadriceps femoris Figure 10.19a Fascia of the Leg

A deep fascia of the leg is continuous with the fascia lata This fascia segregates the leg into _ Distally, the fascia thickens and forms the flexor, extensor, and fibular

retinaculae Figure 10.22a Muscles of the Leg: Movements Various leg muscles produce the following movements at the: Ankle

Intertarsal joints Toes Muscles of the Anterior Compartment primary toe extensors and ankle dorsiflexors

extensor digitorum longus, fibularis tertius Figure 10.21a Muscles of the Lateral Compartment Plantar-flex and evert

the foot fibularis _ Figure 10.22a Muscles of the Posterior Compartment flex the foot and the toes

Tibialis posterior Flexor digitorum longus Figure 10.23a Muscles of the Posterior Compartment

Figure 10.23b, c Muscle Actions of the Thigh: Summary Thigh muscles: Flex and extend the thigh (____________________________________) Extend the leg (______________________________________) Adduct the thigh

(____________________________________) Muscle Actions of the Leg: Summary Leg muscles: Plantar flex and evert the foot Plantar flex the foot and flex the toes

Dorsiflex the foot and extend the toes Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot These muscles help _ In addition, along with some leg tendons, they support the _

There is a single dorsal foot muscle, the ___________________________________, which extends the toes The plantar muscles occur in four layers Plantar Muscles: First Layer (Superficial) Superficial muscles of the _________________

of the foot These muscles are similar to the corresponding muscles of the hand Figure 10.25b Plantar Muscles: Fourth Layer

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