Industrialization -

Industrialization -

The Clothing Industry Where did the clothing industry first develop? What were the important new clothingproducing countries in the early 21stcentury? What is the hourly wage for apparel workers in the U.S. at the time the article was published? How does it compare with other areas? How does high-end apparel production differ from cheap leisure wear?

Industrialization Why Do Industries Have Different Distributions? Its All About THE MONEY! Industry seeks to maximize profits by minimizing production cost

Geographers try to explain why one location may provide more profit than another Two geographical costs: Situation: transporting materials Site: land, labor, and capital Situation Factors

Definition transporting materials to and from the factory Objective minimize the costs For some companies, this is the most important factor in choosing a location If you were building a car manufacturing plant in the U.S., where would you locate it? Proximity to Inputs

Every industry needs either resources from the physical environment or parts/ materials made by another company Weight of the material is a factor for choosing location Example: Copper Industry First Step: Mining the copper ore Bulk-reducing Industry Concentration mills must be near mines

Purified copper is then treated at refineries Source of energy Example 2: Steel Industry Also a bulk-reducing industry Choose location to minimize the cost of transporting inputs Steel is an alloy of iron that is produced by removing impurities in iron

Origin of Steel Industry Productions was small until the Industrial Revolution The constant heating and cooling of steel required strength, skill and a lot of time The Watt Steam Engine

More advances in the steel industry Henry Cort Puddling reheating iron until pasty, then stirring it with iron rods until impurities are burned off Rolling passing iron between rollers to remove remaining

scum Abraham Darby produced high quality iron smelted with purified carbon made from coal, known as coke U.S. Steel Industry In the mid 19th Century the U.S. steel industry was concentrated around Pittsburgh

In the first half of the 20th Century steel mills were built near the coast Baltimore, L.A., Trenton Changing U.S. Steel Industry Recently, many steel plants have closed Survivors southern Lake Michigan, East Coast Successful steel mills are located close to markets

Mini-mills Proximity to Markets Transporting goods to consumers is an important locational factor for three industries: 1. Bulk-gaining 2. Single market 3. Perishable

Bulk Gaining Industries Gain weight during production Example: soft drink bottling Coca-Cola has bottling plants all over Fabricated Metals and Machinery This is a prominent example of a bulk gaining industry A fabricated-metals factory brings

together parts to make a more complex product Examples: TVs, refrigerators, air conditioners, and cars Location of Car Manufacturing Historically near large markets Recently assembly plants focus on producing a single model rather than locating near all large markets

The Ford Plant in ATL (#6) has closed Single Market Manufacturers Products are sold primarily in one location, so they cluster near the market Example: the manufacturers of automobile parts only sell to a couple of customers (GM, Toyota)

Parts makers ship their products directly to assembly plants auto alley Average Percentage of State GDP in Automotive Manufacturing, 1998 to 2008 Perishable Products Products must be delivered to consumers ASAP!

Milkshed Technologys impact? Ship, Rail, Truck, or Air Trucks used for short distance Trains longer distances Water if available, is attractive for long distances Air the most expensive,

but more firms are using the air for speedy delivery Break-of-Bulk Points Cost rises each time inputs are transferred from one mode to another Sometimes the cost for one mode is lower for inputs and expensive for products, so companies locate at a break-of-bulk point where transfer

among transportation modes is possible St. Louis is a break of bulk point and Seaport, you can seeairport the multiple transportation modes intersect here Site Factors

Definition = the unique characteristics of a location Land, labor, and capital are the three traditional production factors that vary among locations The most important site factor on a global scale = labor Minimizing labor cost in VERY important for some industries Labor

Labor-intensive industry one in which labor is a high percentage of expense Some need highly skilled, expensive labor Labor intensive is not the same as highwage Textile and clothing industries require less skilled, low cost workers 3 steps: spinning, weaving, and cutting/sewing All are labor intensive, but not equally so resulting in global distributions that

are not identical Textile and Apparel Spinning Because it is labor intensive, it is located in low-wage countries (PINGs) PINGs account for of the worlds spinning production Located where cotton

is grown The U.S. is the only PED that is a major thread producer Synthetic fibers is made in PINGs Textile and Apparel Weaving Labor is even more intensive Especially highly

concentrated in lowwage countries: 86% of the worlds woven cotton is produced in PINGs China accounts for of production India accounts for of production Textile and Apparel Assembly Textiles are assembled into

four main types of products 1. 2. 3. 4.

Garments Carpets Home products Industrial uses Most of the 80 billion articles of clothing sold worldwide are made in Asia 3/4 of shirts

of dresses and suits Most of the worlds underwear and lingerie Europeans and North Americans produce woolens Land Most efficient form of factory is a one story building = more land needed to

build these Land is cheaper in suburban or rural areas than in the city Industries are attracted to energy sources, low electrical rates, and amenities at the site Capital Manufacturers typically borrow funds to establish

new factories or expand existing ones Silicon Valley capital Financial incentives The ability to

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