Indus River Valley - Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools

Indus River Valley - Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools

Indus River Valley Review Rivers Names, Geographic Features

Writing Systems Nomads Architecture-Buildings What was their purpose?

What We Will Learn Today: How did geography effect the Indus River Valley civilization? Indias Geographic Features The Indian subcontinent is

a large, wedge-shaped peninsula that extends southward into the Indian Ocean. Subcontinent: A large region that is part of a continent, but is separated

from the rest of the content in some way. Identification of Geographic Features in India Indus River

Ganges River Peninsula and/ or Subcontinent Himalayan Mountains

This peninsula is surrounded on the north and northwest by huge mountains, the Himalayan Mountains. This has often limited India's contact with other cultures. This is known as cultural

isolation. You decide! How would isolation impact the people on Ancient Indus? Seasonal winds known as monsoons bring rain every summer. India is dependent upon monsoons to grow their crops. Not

enough rain brings drought. When there is too much rain, rivers rise and cause deadly floods and destruction of crops. Civilization in the Indus River Valley Begins About 2500 BC, about the time when the pyramids

were rising in Egypt, the first Indian civilizations were forming in the Indus River Valley. Little is known about these civilizations, but Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were most likely twin capital

cities. Purpose of Early Cities Each city was large in area and contained a large structure located on a hilltop.

Many believe these structures could have served as a fortress or even a temple. Film: Early History of India

Complexities of the Cities The most historically striking feature of these two cities were the way in which they were both well planned. Each city was laid out in a grid pattern, the blocks similar to

those seen in modern cities. The homes seem to have been built with bricks and in a pattern repeated throughout the city. Plumbing In the Cities In addition, these cities

seem to contain houses with plumbing systems, including baths, drains and water pipes. Trade with Sumer

Most of the people of the Indus valley were farmers. They were the first people to grow cotton and weave it into cloth. There is early evidence of trade with other

civilizations including Sumer. Aryans Take over Indus Valley Just like not much is known about the development of this region, not much is known about its decline.

For unknown reasons, around 1750 B.C. the Indus Valley began to decline. Then about 1500 B.C., nomadic warriors known as the Aryans conquered the Indus Valley. Huang He River Valley

Chinas Geographic Features Huang He or Yellow River Yangzi River ~ Chinese civilization grew up in the river valley

of the Huang He River (a.k.a.the Yellow River) and the Yangzi River. Huang Ye River or Yellow River

The mountains, deserts, jungles and other geographic features have isolated Chinese culture. Having little contact with others , the Chinese believed their culture was the center of the earth. ~ Although China covers a huge

area, until recent times, most people lived only along the east coast or in the river valley. Early Views

The Chinese called themselves The Middle Kingdom because they believed they were at the center. This is an example of ethnocentrism.

Shang Dynasty About 1650 BC, the Shang gained control of northern China. Ruling families began to gain control, similar to small kingdoms.

The Shang set up the first dynasty. Dynasty: A series of rulers from a family.

The ancient civilization was much like others with nobility owning the land, merchants and craftspeople trading and living in the cities and a large population of peasants living in surrounding villages. Polytheistic Peoples

Early Chinese people were polytheistic, and prayed to many Gods and nature spirits. They also looked to dead relatives to help them in daily life and

to help them please the Gods. Ying and Yang Many Chinese also believed that the universe held a delicate balance between

opposing forces. The Ying and Yang must be in balance for prosperity and happiness to occur in ones life. Early Writing System

The Chinese civilizations made achievements in early writing systems that include both pictographs and ideographs and is now as one of the earliest writing systems. Hinduis m

Hinduism has no single founder, but originated from the mixing of Harappan and Aryan cultures in ancient India around

1500 BCE. Hindus believe in one unifying spirit, Brahman. Brahman can manifest in many, polytheistic,

forms or in one, monotheistic. Hinduism is based on the concept of reincarnation (Spirits return to

earth many times in different forms trying to become one with Brahman). The soul moves up or down a hierarchy depending on their

behavior in life. A person moves closer to Brahman by obeying the law of karma. Karma is the sum of all your

deeds, good and bad. Good deeds involve following your dharma, or duties dependent on your position, gender and

The caste system (outlawed since 1948) was an important part of Hinduism. Castes are social classes into which a person is born and lives their entire life. If a person has a good karma they may be reincarnated into a higher caste. This life

Next life Good Karma Higher caste

Bad Karma Lower caste Born into A caste

The caste system separated Indian society into distinct social classes in which everyone knew their place and believed that if they followed the dharma of their caste, they would be reincarnated into a better caste. Brahma n

Kshatriy a Vaisya Sudra Untouchables Over the centuries

Hindu beliefs were recorded into a number of sacred texts including the Vedas and the Upanishads.

The Ramayana is a Hindu creation story. Hindus believe the Ganges River is sacred and

often wish to be cremated and have their ashes sprinkled in the river upon death. Buddhism

Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in northern India around 560 BCE. Gautama was born

into a wealthy Hindu family, but renounced his wealth to seek spiritual enlightenment. Buddhism is neither monotheistic or polytheistic, instead

a path is followed to reach Enlightenment ~Buddhism spread through cultural diffusion to

eastern Asia, including China, Thailand, Korea and Japan. ~In other areas, Buddhism was

adapted and took on new forms. Buddhism is based on the Four Noble Truths. 1. All life is

suffering. 2. Suffering is caused by desire for things that are illusions.

3. The way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate desire. 4. Following the Eightfold path will

help people to overcome desire. Buddhism has much in common with Hinduism, but important differences. Buddhism like

Hinduism: But not Reincarnation Caste

system Karma Hindu gods Dharma

Hindu priesthood Buddha did not record his teachings, but after he died, his followers collected them into the Tripitaka.

Todays Tibetan Buddhists are led by the Dalai Lama, who advocates for

freedom from China.

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