India - 1

India - 1

2 India The Schools and Their Framework 1 Historical backgrounds The Caste System and the Iron Age 2 Caste System is a Kinship System

A caste (varna) is an intermarrying group Kinship; hereditary membership A caste eats together A high-caste Brahmin does not eat with someone of a lower caste; different diets for different castes Divided by occupation: priest, warrior, merchant, peasant Legal status, rights based on caste membership Gandhi was refused permission to study in England 3

Advantages of Caste System Problem of alienation in West; Middle East People from different kin groups move to cities Work with strangers Legal identity is external; abstract Caste system precludes alienation Live, work with fellow kin Side-by-side with other kin groups > Requires tolerance of different groups 4

Origin of Caste system Apparently, the Aryan invaders [beginning about 1500 BC] were even then thinking of a social system that separated people by occupation and sanctioned that separation through religion. (Spodek, The Worlds History, 276) =System of separation of Aryans (light-skinned, twiceborn) and others (darker skinned, once-born) (Dravidians) Caste is a translation of Varna which means color Striking physical differences But also differences in language and culture between the new rulers and the indigenous people

5 Neo-kinship Kinship + hierarchy = neo-kinship Kinship adapts to civilization Twice born castes Brahmin; Kshatriya; Vaishya Ritual rebirth Once born: Sudra The majority of the people

[Outcasts] Development of caste system: Varna many jati castes 6 Short-lived dynasties 700-600 BCE early states Iron age republics; monarchies Chinas Xia dynasty: Bronze age: 2205-1766 BCE

324-185 BCE Mauryas 320-540 CE Guptas Conquests by Hunas, Muslims, English => Weakness of political system: feudalism Corollary of difference in forms of neo-kinship 7 Unity v. Diversity Chinas neo-kinship system unifies Clans conquer other clans with similar culture

Head of ruling clan: father of all Unites society under ruler Indias neo-kinship system divides Aryan group rules others of dissimilar culture Aim: preserve unity of ruling group versus assimilation by others Divides society into different groups 8 Effects of the Iron Age Begins about 1000 BC in Egypt and

Mesopotamia (83) Hittite invention (territory of present-day Turkey) High cost of producing bronze from copper and tin only possible for the rich Iron ore is abundant, cheaper > From power of aristocracy to power of peasants > Freedom from hierarchical state control 9 China is a Bronze Age Society Confucius defends primacy of family, kinship

Praises Sage kings of Xia dynasty (2205-1766 BCE) Confucius birth: 551 BCE Xia precedes the hereditary monarchy and the sharper inequalities of Shang (1766-1122 BCE) Iron age (after 1000 BCE) develops within the Bronze Age society of China Hence China maintains its aristocratic character Reinforced by huge irrigation projects run by the state and its Confucian bureaucracy 10 New Elements in History

1) From bronze age to iron age: New material technology 2) Growing trade between societies New social elements: merchants Early Indus River Valley society flourished due to trade links 3) From hieroglyphics to the alphabet: New mental technology 11 Two paths of Iron Age

1) Iron technology is introduced within the old Bronze Age state In China and Persia The potential of the new technology is confined within the old state system 2) Iron is introduced outside the old framework In India and Greece Here the potential of republican freedom is not suppressed by an entrenched Bronze-Age state 12 Republican governments

Historical significance of iron technology freedom from control by bronze-age aristocracy Historical significance of alphabet versus hieroglyphic writing Less time need to learn to read and write more possibility for lower classes to acquire learning Republican governments of the Iron Age in both India and Greece The common people have power in government 13

Trade and the philosophical search for deeper truth Relation between Wheat and Wine? Qualitative differences in appearance Trade: X bushels of Wheat = Y bottles of Wine ?? What makes two different things equal? X Wheat = $20 Y Wine = $20 Quantitative calculations of reason replace qualitative experiences Why are they equal?

Not because of taste, appearance, amounts but ??? => Philosophical reason seeks deeper truth under sensuous appearances 14 Implications of Trade 1) Democracy: What counts is the money, not the person 2) Reasoning, calculating, math is required by merchants => Philosophy: rise of independent, individualistic reasoning,

versus dictates of religious authority, priesthood Or the wise man, the sage 15 The fall of freedom In India too, the republics are replaced by monarchies But the memory of the republican period remains strong Hence the role of later philosophy: Reconcile the memory of republican freedom with the current experience of unfreedom

16 1) The Schools and Their Framework 17 Continuity of Indian Philosophy Indian philosophers today continue to refer to ancient texts At least to 500 BCE The Upanishads for Hindu philosophers

The sayings of the Buddha for Buddhist philosophers But Buddha also studied the Upanishads Two major philosophical tendencies reflecting two major religions of India 18 Indian schools 8 major schools (darshannas) Hence: continuity does not mean conformity Indian philosophy: a furnace of heated debate

All the issues of Western philosophy are also examined herewith stress on logical rigor nave realism idealism phenomenalism But also, appeals to special, mystical experiences 19 Dreamlike? Hegel: dreamlike nature of Indian philosophy 1960s hippie flower people with glazed eyes Beatles music discovery of mystical wisdom of

India Indian philosophy is linked to religion/mysticism Issue: how can Indian philosophy be both logical/rational and spiritual/mystical? 20 The Historic Photograph "Flower Power" in 1967 21

Religion and Philosophy Religion: organized institutions, with temples, rituals, etc. Philosophy is distinct from this But religions have doctrines, dogmas, authoritative teachings Philosophies often provide rational arguments for these teachings The philosophies can be very different St. Thomas Aquinas and Kierkegaard: two very different Christian philosophers 22

Existence of God If religion is defined in relation to the idea of a creator God Indian philosophy seems very unreligious Almost none of the Indian schools defend this idea of a supreme, personal God Often god = a pure soul An Enlightened human being A manifestation of an impersonal cosmic principle (Krishna is an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu) 23

Indian spirituality What do we mean by spiritual? The material world is an illusion A few Indian schools There are other possibilities besides our everyday experiences, and we should seek liberation from this everyday life All Indian schools 24

The mystical Mysticism: direct experience of a higher order of being through meditation: All Indian schools 1) But the possibility of this is always argued for on rational grounds 2) Rational philosophical thought is a prerequisite for the mystical experience 3) Although this is ineffable, we can argue rationally what it is not: Brahman is not mind, not a god 25

The schools The 8 main schools 6 Othodox: accept the Vedas as authoritative 2 Unorthdox: Buddhism and Jainism The orthodox schools: divided in pairs Nyaya and Vaisheshika Samkhya and Yoga Vidanta and Mimamsa The joker: Materialism of Carvaka Typical of India v the West: this materialist school does not survive

Except as a ghostly threat 26 Authoritative texts The Vedas (Sanskrit for knowledge) Millennium after the Aryan migration into India of 1500 BCE Religious verses (mantras), treatises on sacrificial rituals, philosophical speculations (Upanishads) Upanishads: stimulating, not confining Later work: Bhagavad Gitamajor text for Vedanta The unorthodox Buddhist and Jains They reject the social doctrine of Hinduism: the caste system

Their teachings however were often closer to the orthodox than some orthodox to each other 27 1) Tone of Upanishads Embryonic ideas, stimuli for further development Tone of intense seriousness Tremendous importance for us of a proper understanding of the cosmos and of ourselves Not idle curiosity or knowledge for knowledge sake Our salvation, or true development and ultimate happiness, depends on this knowledge

Ordinary life is unhappy because we misunderstand ourselves and the nature of reality 28 2) Main theme, leitmotiv, of Upanishads Our unhappiness is based on a failure to recognize that ordinary experience does not give true reality there is a deep connection, even an identity, between ourselves (atman) and the cosmos (Brahman) 29

The return home I shall remain here [in my everyday existence] only so long as I shall not be released [from the bonds of ignorance]. Then I shall arrive home. That which is the finest essence this whole world has that as its soul. That is Reality. That is atman. That art thou [Tat tvam asi]. Chandogya Upanishad I was no stranger in the world, that the inscrutable without name and form had taken me in its arms. (Tagoremodern Bengali poet)

30 Loss of innocence Because of false beliefs and concepts, we feel ourselves to be insecure strangers and aliens in the world Because: mans nave at-oneness with the living universe, his essential innocence or sense of fellow feeling, is lost. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Recall also: Book of Genesis Original state of humanity is oneness with the natural world But this has been lost because of knowledge of good and

evil 31 3) More specific doctrines 1) Tone 2) General theme 3) Specific doctrines (1) Samsara (2) Karma (3) Dharma (4) Moksha (5) Avidya (6) Duhkha

32 (1) Samsara (reincarnation) Ordinary experience, the world of becoming In which all living creatures undergo cycles of rebirth (reincarnation, transmigration) Each creature has countless lives until liberated This belief is not found in the early Vedas (texts of the Aryan migrants from the north) Hence: it is inherited from an even earlier Indian civilization before 1500 BCE => Indus River Valley (Harappan) civilization: 2500-1500 BCE

An egalitarian society, and yet with cities and developed technology (republics!) 33 Continuity with the early societies So we see evidence of an earlier philosophy or concept of life Closer to the early egalitarianism of hunter/gatherers Before the rise of hierarchical states There were clan republics in the early rise of iron age Aryan society 700-600 BCE

centered on the Ganges River 34 What is it that transmigrates? Rational argumentation enters into the picture with different theories The creature that transmigrates cannot be a body But to say it is a self or soul is too simple Not the ordinary self or soul But the elemental soul (bhutatman) This teaching of the transmigrating soul (Atman) is criticized by Buddhism,

with its doctrine of anatman (no atman or soul) which argues against any fundamental soul 35 Three questions 1) What evidence for this cycle? Not generally because we remember past lives Though Buddha was said on the night of his enlightenment to have remembered 500 past lives 2) What permits us to say that the elemental soul in creature Y today is the same as that in creature X in a past life?

3) Why does the elemental soul occupy this particular body? Good or bad luck? 36 (2) Karma According as one acts so does he become One becomes virtuous by virtuous action, bad by bad action. (Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad) I.e., we become who/what we are through our own actions. Our actions bear fruit in our future And so we must be reincarnated since one lifetime

is not enough for this to happen 37 Our character/dispositions created by our actions What makes the elemental soul in Y in this life the same as that in X in a previous life? The load of Karmic effects that Y carries because of actions as X The individuals character and set of dispositions are deserved, necessary, not accidental or arbitrary Cooper cites law of conservation of energy (19): no energy is created

or lost, but only transformed There is indeed the elemental soulhe, who, being overcome by the bright or the dark fruits of action, enters a good or evil womb, so that his course is downward or upward. Maitri Upanishad 38 Arguments for Karma? Almost none How does Karma work? Also unexplained

But this is true in Western philosophy too The law of causality is presupposed, not demonstrated Causality: outside forces determine us (materialism) India: we determine ourselves! How does one thing cause another? (e.g., how does gravity cause the thing to fall?) Also unexplained 39 Implicit, presupposed moral argument 1) We are responsible for our actions (basic principle of morality) 2) but these are strongly conditioned by the conditions of

our birth If we were unlucky to be born from an evil womb (poverty, criminal parents, genetic disease, etc.) then our responsibility would be very limited or nil But the doctrine of karma says we are responsible for the conditions of our birth as well Plato too says this in the Republic when he recounts the Near Death Experience of the soldier Er 40 Historical context Iron-age India has the experience of republican

governments People ruling themselves, without hierarchy within their family arrangements (neo-kinship) But the republics were short-lived, replaced by kingdoms Q: How do people who have the historical memory of freedom reconcile themselves with this loss of freedom? 41 Karma = freedom A: Karma:

we seem to be unfree, subject to others, but we ourselves caused our present state by our own actions in another lifetime Hence we are still free! We can change, improve, our state by fulfilling our duties in this lifetime Dharma 42 (3) Dharma Cooper says that karma is embedded in or

presupposed to the next doctrine: Dharma duty or moral obligation Connected to ones station in life Arjuna in the Bhavagad-Gita is a warrior, and so has the duty to fight in battle He is a member of the Kshatrya (warrior, political) caste 43 The world is intelligible Dharma: the world is an intelligible whole God does not play dice with the universe (Einstein) Objection: But we cant explain an individuals character,

feelings and tendencies to act in one way or another Reply: Ones character has been shaped by actions in past lives Dharma takes up the slack: we have certain duties because of our karma (the fruits of our actions in the past) 44 Is Karma unscientific? Modern scientific-materialist explanation: genes But this is not proven in detail There are certain inherited genetic diseases

But is all our psychology inherited? It implies determinism: we are not responsible for our actions Hence, a strong defense of moral responsibility (Dharma) presupposes Karma as well as Samsara (reincarnation) 45 (4) Moksha There is the assumption that Karma is a fatalistic doctrine

Something bad happens, and some say that thats your karma But we make our karma through our own actions Moksha liberation from Samara = happiness, bliss Presupposes freedom, responsibility for our actions Our dispositions based on past actions incline us (not determine us) to certain future ones But we can overcome this, change direction, transcend our past: become happy fulfilled individuals 46

(5) Avidya Overcoming Samsara depends on overcoming ignorance (Avidya) regarding our true relation to the cosmos E.g., the false belief that the self is necessarily connected to the body (materialism) What immediately binds us to Samsara are our desires and motives for action feeding off a false conception of self With enlightenment this will evaporate

leading to disinterested action 47 Cessation of illusions With cessation of every illusion there is a falling off of all fetters [i.e., desires that bind us to certain actions] (and so) cessation of birth and death. Svetasvatara Upanishad (21) 48 (6) Duhkha

But why isnt ignorance bliss? Maybe its a good thing to be reincarnated Q: What is the problem that makes us want to be liberated from Samsara? A: Duhkha (Suffering) Pleasures are ephemeral, soon over, and then we crave new ones We are addicted to them, and soon bored All these ordinary pleasures that we crave are nothing compared to the true bliss and happiness, Moksha Samsara is a prison house, a wheel of birth and rebirth Cessation of Duhkha is a state of blissful freedom 49

Avidya: Bad faith (wilful ignorance) We can hide all this from ourselves, thinking that in our ordinary lives we are content with our grasping at things, our attachments our identity with our bodily existence Ignorance (Avidya) of our true nature may be bliss But it is a culpable ignorance We live in bad faith regarding who we really are and what we are really feeling 50

The framework and the schools These sets of doctrines are the framework The task of the schools: To provide a comprehensive account of ourselves and our relation to the universe to dispel the ignorance (Avidya) inherent in our everyday beliefs To show the unsatisfactoriness (Duhkha) of this ordinary life This account must be so communicated and meditated on that we no longer want to perform actions that produce Karma and bind us to Samsara So that we consciously, purely, follow the moral law (Dharma) And attain (Moksha)

51 2) Nyaya and Vaisheshika 52 Common sense view of reality Westerners who follow the tradition of common sense empiricist philosophy will find Nyaya (logic or reasoning) more congenial to them with its emphasis on perception and logic But the soteriological (salvation) context is in the

background of Nyaya Perception and logic are necessary for the cessation of Duhkha and for Moksha The means of right knowledge (pramanas) involving perception and logic are important steps in overcoming ignorance (Avidya) 53 Two sides: ontology and epistemology Major author: Vatsyayana (4th c. CE) Famous author of the Kama-sutra Also wrote the Nyaya-sutras

Two stages culminate in the 11th c. in a single doctrine Vaisheshika ontology (atomism, plural realism) Nyaya epistemology (theory of knowledge based on ordinary perception and reasoning) 54 The nature of the world The world is independent of thought and perception i.e., not dependent on our points of view and composed of many different substances underlying

the properties we perceive The separate nature of these substances corresponds to our clear, direct perceptions of the world These substances that we perceive can in turn can be divided The ultimate limit of division: the atom 55 Different kinds of substances Substance: 1) Indestructible material atoms compounds Chairs and trees of ordinary experience

2) Space and time 3) Immaterial eternal souls (atman) underlying consciousness and feeling Absence is also a substance Jean-Paul Sartre defends this too: I go to the caf to meet Pierre, and he is not there His absence is a reality in my world, alongside the people, tables and chairs of the cafe 56 Epistemological battles

Skeptics and idealists would reject these ideas and claim otherwise based on a theory of knowledge E.g., the world seems to be independent of consciousness, but an adequate theory of knowledge refutes this Against such skepticism, the Nyaya epistemologists are the allies of the Vaisheshika ontology Our ways of knowing do indeed support plural realism 57 Philosophical debate

The Naiyayikas (defenders of Nyaya) opposed alternative theories of knowing that were more commonly held The Samkhyans say that the apparent differences in the world are expressions of a single underlying nature which we divide through our conventional mental distinctions Recall Taoism of Chuang Tzu 58 Pramanas

But the pramanas (means of right knowledge) refute these positions: 1) Perception, 2) inference, 3) comparison, and 4) word 59 Perception and Inference 1) Perception direct experience of reality 2) Inference reasoning from this to something not directly perceived

An event is perceived We infer that it must have been caused by something prior to it E.g., we infer the existence of a God (Ishvara) as the cause of the material world 60 Proof of God from effects to cause One of the nine Nyaya proofs of the existence of God: Kryt ("from effect"): 1) An effect is produced by an efficient cause, Z Y X W A (?)

If the chain is endless nothing is ever caused Hence A must be an Uncaused Cause 2) The world is an effect 3) and so must have a cause, God which is not caused by something else 61 Big Bang Compare to Big Bang theory: The present expanded universe comes out of a previous state that is smaller The previous state comes from an earlier one that

is smaller yet The first state is a Big Bang explosion from a single point Nyaya/Vaisheshika: Something must cause this first event, and that is God 62 3) Comparison I directly perceive something in sensory experience independently of words or concepts: There is this But when I know this as an ox I employ comparison

with other objects of experience I use concepts based on other experiences And form a judgment: This is an ox before me. This mental process of combining (Nyaya) corresponds to objective physical processes (Vaisheshika) 63 Proof of God from combination The yojant Proof (from combination) 1) Atoms (corresponding to bare thises) are inactive.

2) To form a substance, they must combine (corresponding to judgments) 3) To combine, they must move (inference 1) 64 4) Nothing moves without intelligence and a source of motion. (inference 2) Pure blind combinations would result in chaos 5) Since we perceive organized substances, some intelligent source must have moved the inactive, unintelligent atoms (inference 3)

That intelligent source is God 65 4) Word: Testimony Verbal Testimony (sabda) is a fourth source of knowledge Not commonly admitted in western philosophy Why not? Western philosophy is individualistic because the early states (e.g. Greece) replaced kinship with legal systems governing separate independent individuals

But Eastern philosophy supposes kinship as an essential condition of experience: interdependence of individuals 66 We depend on others The assumption is that verbal testimony is reliable No individual can achieve adequate knowledge by herself We depend on others for our knowledge Hence the scriptures, the testimony of mystics, can play a legitimate role in knowledge

Hence knowledge depends on matters seen by others, not only by the separate individual reasoning regarding the unforeseen 67 Proof of God from Karma Adiht (lit., from the unforeseen): Perception, judgment, and comparison: It is seen that some people in this world are happy, some are in misery. Some are rich, and some are poor. Testimony: The Naiyayikas explain this by the

concept of Karma and reincarnation Naiyayikas base their argument on inference for the future 68 Inference for the future The fruit of an individual's actions does not always lie within the reach of the individual who is the agent. E.g., we perform a kind deed for someone else But this does not always result in a benefit for ourselves But our actions should bare fruit for ourselves, whether good or evil (karma)

There ought to be, therefore, a dispenser of the fruits of actions, and this supreme dispenser is God. But it is still our own actions that are responsible for these fruits in the future (in our next lives) 69 Bootstrapping? Objection: these pramanas are interdependent and circular Q: How establish the validity of testimony? A: By accepting the testimony of the Naiyayikas = bootstrapping

I.e., the Naiyayikas argue that their way of reasoning is the correct one by appealing to the testimony of their own tradition i.e., they are lifting themselves up by their own bootstraps 70 71 The truth that there is no truth This objection points in the direction of skepticism

The universal skeptic says there is no truth But that is a truth: the truth that there is no truth Pure or universal skepticism is self-defeating A limited skepticism must admit some true means of knowledge to be skeptical of Nyaya The skeptic must then justify that by some other means including the testimony of others 72 Are the pramanas lamps or pots? Some Naiyayikas say that the pramanas do not need to be justified, because they are selfilluminating

A lamp also illumines itself Objection: But the pramanas are not necessarily lamps; maybe they are like pots, which do not illuminate themselves (Vatsayana) 73 Mutuality of pramanas Vatsayana argues: the pramanas are established by themselves mutually. = Overall coherence

E.g. what we believe on the basis of inference or testimony coheres with other perceptions The four pramanas cohere together to produce a large and consistent body of knowledge This contributes to overcoming ignorance, duhkha, and the wheel of samsara 74 No absolute foundation There is no need for some absolute foundation for knowledge i.e., some direct insight into the truth like that of the Taoist Sage or the mystic

Rational argumentation with its different parts, its steps from one position to another is suitable and adequate for attaining truth 75 Historical context Recall the historical context Why does the bottle of wine have the same monetary value as the bushel of wheat? The merchant exchanges goods based on mathematical reasoning rather than intuition

Assuming that such reasoning corresponds to the nature of the different objects being exchanged 76 Necessity to go beyond sensations Sensory experience is not enough It is necessary to make judgments based on comparisons (wine and wheat) It is necessary to make inferences that go beyond sensory appearances It is necessary to rely on the testimony of others regarding the value of the goods

77 78 3) Samkhya and Yoga 79 Samkyhan dualism Samkhya means discrimination or discernment Samkhyan dualism of soul (purusha) and nature (prakriti) Main text of Samkyan thought: Ishvarakrishnas Samkhya-karika

Yoga means join or yoke or union How do the two sides work together, harmonize Main Yoga text, Patanjalis Yoga-sutra Samkyha is said to be the oldest Indian school But the dualism of soul (purusha) and nature (prakriti) conflicts with the central doctrine of the Upanishads: the oneness of atman (self) and Brahman (absolute reality) 80 Three primordial thoughts

Perhaps the oldest, because it elaborates primordial responses Earliest reflections on the nature of the world, the nature of human beings, and the relation between the two 1) The sense that the world is a single coherent whole Recall: early animism, oneness with nature 2) But human beings are unique, set off from the natural order Recall: Technology and social developments seem to separate us from nature

81 Unity in difference 3) Everything is for us There is some vital link between ourselves and the ponderous enormity of things (Tagore) i.e., restore the connection while maintaining the separation: connection in separation Contrast with Taoism Chuang-tzu: Connect with the underlying oneness of the Tao Recall: China unites; India divides

82 Three doctrines 1) There is a single material substance, prakriti 2) There are an infinite number of distinct souls or purushas Pure immaterial consciousnesses 3) Prakriti exists for the sake of the purushas It has evolved so that the purushas may exist in a state of liberation by realizing their absolute distinction from prakriti 83

Where do the elements come from? Samkhya recognizes that things are composed of elements (the position of Nyaya/Vaisheshika) but all elements evolve from a single dynamic substance, the Prakriti What is the evidence for this? Objection (Nyaya): We do not directly perceive this prakriti which contradicts our ordinary perceptions Alternative epistemology of Samkhya: But we do not directly perceive things at all, but only pictures

or representations, constructed in the mind-organ (manas) 84 How do we know this? How do we know the oneness of the material universe? Some individuals may have a direct intuition of the oneness of the cosmos in meditation But the main argument is reasoning by inference from the nature of causality 85

Where theres smoke, theres fire E.g., smoke is caused by fire It is contained within the fire and then arises from it If the effect were not contained in the cause, then anything might cause anything There would be no order in the universecontrary to what we experience Fire however comes out of the wood that burns If every effect arises in this way from out of its cause This leads back to one general cause of this many-sided universe

on account of the difference and the non-difference of cause and effect (Ishvarakrishna) 86 Difference from Nyaya-Vaisheshika N-V: the cause is distinct from the effect Leading to a God outside of the world Who creates the separate elements And then must guide their relation to one another to produce order Including the relation between the human action and its effects (Karma)

87 In the beginning: Prakriti But Samkhya argues that the effect is contained within the cause leading to one general cause from which all the effects develop Prakriti divides into the separate elements, which remain related because they all come out of the same source, Prakriti This is the universal ground of being

containing all the effects within herself It is not possible to refer to an external creator God because the cause is not outside of the effect 88 Big Bang Compare to Big Bang theory: The present expanded universe comes out of a previous state that is smaller The previous state comes from an earlier one that is smaller yet Everything in nature (Prakriti) is contained within

this unitary starting point, which expands and self-divides for the purpose of serving souls (Purusha) 89 Different perspectives N/V: what caused this starting point? Z Y X W A (?) S/Y: There is no need to raise this question because everything is contained within Nature which is develops or unfolds itself (Herself)

90 Nyaya v. Samkhya Nyaya/Vaisheshika: Something must cause this first event, and that is God But this is based on a conception of causality in which effect and cause are separate beings Samkhya: Everything is contained within the initial moment Z is within Y; Y is within X; X is within W etc. all is within A, and there is nothing outside It

no need for an external, creator God the material/mental universe is itself divine (Prakriti) 91 The gunas Prakriti is composed of three threads (gunas) Evolving in stages from an original balance that gets disturbed The Big Bang = the Big Disturbance or the Big Unbalancing 1) Elements of the material world arising out of the oneness of Nature 2) More refined matter of the perceptual senses (sight, hearing, etc), the conative (practical) senses of (desire,

will, etc.), 3) And the mind-organ, which organizes the data of the senses 92 93 Evolution of matter Evolution involves increasing refinement of matter The Samkhyan dualism is not a dualism of matter and mind For mind is a refined kind of matter

Intelligence (buddhi) is a stage of matter Prakriti is a single reality that evolves into complexity and refinement, including mind 94 The witness Purshua is different; it is not mind It is multiple, not single Each purusha is simple and passive: a witness, isolated, neutral, cognizing, and inactive (Samkhya-karika)

What it directly witnesses (knows) are mental states, pictures in the mind-organ coming from sense data 95 Analysis of perception A perception is composed of prakriti An external object and its representation in the mind pursha The witnessing consciousness

Lower animals can perceive and desire And so have minds But only higher animals and humans have souls (Purushas) and are self-conscious 96 97 How do we know the purusha? Normally, we do not directly perceive purusha Purusha is like a lamp (flashlight) that shines on other things

the mental objects but not on itself Recall: some N-V say the pramanas are self-illuminating We normally only know purusha through rational inference Since the aggregate of things is for the sake of another; since there is superintendence, and since there is activity for sake of isolation, the soul exists. (Ishvarakrishna) 98 How explain the striving for liberation?

1) Mental states are focused on objects Hence to be conscious of them (superintendence) there must be something else 2) If there were nothing but prakriti, there would be no striving toward liberation (moksha) The world (including mental representations and desires) would just be what it is But we humans do have this striving (unlike cows) (activity for the sake of isolation) Q How explain this? A There is in us something beyond the material/mental world: the

soul, the purusha 99 Liberation Liberation requires discrimination (Samkhya) between Prakriti and what one truly isa pure consciousness Otherwise there is clinging to the material world of the senses and so pleasure and pain and entrapment in the cycle of rebirth (samsara) 100

The purpose of nature 3) The whole evolution of nature (prakriti) must have a purpose There is no creator (no external cause) But everything is evolving beyond itself to ? E.g., prakriti > wood > fire > smoke the liberation of purusha! Once all purushas are liberated the material world will have served its purpose, and vanish Prakriti is like a dancer who having exhibited herself on the stage, withdraws.

Prakriti withdraws from the soul when she has manifested herself to it in all her distinctness from it 101 The blind man and the cripple Hence, despite their difference, there is an affinity of prakriti and purusha Nature is leading the pursusha to liberation Only obstinate clinging to things prevents this There is a cooperation between prakriti and purusha Like that of a blind man and a cripple who work

together for the goals of each 102 103 From Samkhya to Yoga Ishvarakrishnas Samkhyan duality (Samkhya = discrimination) is complemented Pantanjalis Yoga (= unity) 1) a new approach to the existence of God that is internal to consciousness Not the argument from causality of the Naiyayika/Vaisheshika school

2) a new method of attaining liberation (Moksha) based on inner meditation 104 Ontological argument for the existence of God Pantanjalis yoga rejects Samkhyan atheism His ontological argument: proving the being (being= n in Greek) of God from the logic of ideas about God 1) In moving toward liberation we have an idea of a perfect purusha

one that was never tainted by the material world This idea is implicit in all our striving to be better than we are, our striving for happiness, liberation: an idea of Perfect being 105 From idea to being 2) This idea implies the existence of such a being for if it did not exist, it would not be perfect (1) If our idea of the Perfect Being was not real, did not exist (2) then we could think of an even better being than the nonexisting Being we are thinking about: a Perfect Being that did exist.

(3) And so our first idea of the Perfect Being would not have been an idea of a Perfect Being. (4) And so since we do have an idea of a Perfect Being, we must think of this Being as existing. 3) Hence a perfect being, God, must exist 106 The God Ishvara The god Ishvara: not the creator, but one of the many purushas Helps coordinate the relation of Prakriti and the Purushas

The model of enlightenment One object of meditation, the existence of whom some yogins testify 107 Purpose of meditation Purely rational discrimination of the difference between prakriti and purusha is insufficient to uproot our attachments Meditation is a state in which we uproot ourselves from our inherited dispositions (samskaras)

Yoga stresses that the true nature of purusha is attained in prolonged meditation leading, in 8 steps, to Samadhi involving complete restraint of mental activity in which purusha rests blissfully in itself (Moksha) Buddhism: Samadhi is the last step of the Eightfold Path stop thinking and just dwell on the purusha within yourself 108 The different tendencies of the two schools We see here a difference in tendency between Samkhyan emphasis on theoretical rational concepts

and Yogic practical mysticism 109 110 Problems: 1 General problems for all dualisms: 1) How can two radically different worlds interact and be connected? Reply: Samkhyans say that matter becomes increasingly refined or translucent so as to reflect purusha

2) If the only objects for a purusha are material ones, how do we know other purushas exist? Why not believe that everyone else is prakriti, and only I am purusha (solipsism)? 111 Problems 2 Particular problems for Samkhya-Yoga : How make sense of this pure, unchanging consciousness? We have very different experiences A toothache

Enjoying beautiful music How can there be the same consciousness behind these different states? 112 Different purushas? If the purushas are absolutely simple how can one be different from another? Why not the same pure consciousness in all? And if they are different, how do we know that our pure consciousness of one week is the same

as our pure consciousness the next week? 113 Problems 3 Problems relating to the Indian framework: 1) How does all this relate to the goal of moksha? If the soul is eternally free, then there is no bondage and no release (the non-dualist Vedantin Ramanuja) Reply: to feel release, one must first experience bondage or the illusion of bondage But who/what experiences this? The mind, or the

Purusha/soul? 114 What happens after liberation? 2) If the purpose of purusha is to be conscious of the mental representations, when these dissolve what will it do? It is doomed to be a pure nothing 115 Closing the divide

In the light of these issues, Samkhya/yoga provides one response to the primordial question of the relation of the human being to the natural world stressing the difference But others try to close this divide 116 4) Advaita Vedanta 117

Non-dualism Vedanta: end of the Veda Main text: Bhagavad Gita Versions of Vedanta Advaita (non-dualist) Vishishtadvaita (qualified non-dualist) Dvaita (dualist) Here we focus on the most well known and influential theory: Advaita (non-dualism) This is what is so far new for us

118 Teachings Leading Advaitin: Shankara (9th century CE) The Indian Thomas Aquinas Blending scripture and reason like Aquinas Accepts the six doctrines of the Upanishads Main teachings: 1) Nothing is real except Brahman Unitary Ineffable

119 2) What we ordinarily call reality is an illusion (Maya) Physical objects Persons Gods 3) Individual selves are not real: we are reflections of a single Self, Atman 4) Since reality is one, Atman = Brahman Hence Brahman must be pure consciousness

120 5) Belief in the external world is due to ignorance (avidya) We superimpose our false believes on Reality (Atman/Brahman) 6) Liberation from our attachment to the world through our desires, based on our false beliefs: through experiencing the identity of Atman and Brahman in a self-luminous flash 121

The Great Sentences of the Upanishads 1) Neti, neti Not this, not this 2) Tat tvam asi (That thou art) i.e. You (as Atman) are That (Brahman) 3) Atman and Brahman are identical 122 Ritual pegs or truth?

The Mimamsa school: these are pegs for performing rituals, not literal truth How can two things, That and Thou, be one? Shankara: That and Thou refer to one and the same entity. Atman and Brahman are not separate things that can be indicated by these two words On this superficial level the sentence is obviously false The words indicate a truth that can only be grasped in direct intuition 123

Role of reason But reason plays an important role here through the critique of the dualism of the Samkhya/Yoga position It would be depressing if dualism were true We would be strangers in the world Identity of Self and Reality a state beyond fear or danger A doctrine of being a self-awareness that needs nothing else a sense of completeness that is also ananda (delight). 124

Agreements with Samkhya Advaitins agree with certain Samkhya or Yoga assumptions: 1) The Self is a pure consciousness, a witness Mental processes are not directly conscious They are focused on something else, not on themselves Hence a witness consciousness is needed (selfconsciousness) Shankara adds: It is inconsistent to deny the Self, for it is the Self that would do the denying (Shankara) 125

Prakriti = Maya 2) It is ignorance (avidya) to confuse the empirical mind or ego with the pure witnessing consciousness 3) The things in the world are contained in a single cause But this does not go far enough for the Advaitins: Prakriti is an illusion (Maya) 126 Disagreements

1) Re: the existence of many souls (purushas, jivas) is unintelligible, because once the self is stripped of what belongs to the world Body Senses Emotions Intellect there is nothing left to distinguish ones Self from that of another person Just as there is only one Space, despite the seemingly separate spaces in the different pots and jugs

127 How can nature and soul be related? 2) Re: the distinctness of Purusha and the natural order (Prakriti) Samkhya says that Prakriti exists for the sake of Purusha But purpose implies that Prakriti is consciouswhich everyone agrees is not the case But if Prakriti is not conscious how can it be for anything? Hence there can be no relation at all between Purusha or the soul and the natural world The lame man and the blind man can help each other

because they belong to the same order of nature 128 Ishvara? No appeal to a god (Ishvara) to coordinate can help, How such a god would be able coordinate two radically different realms is unintelligible If Prakriti and Purusha are radically different not even a God would be able to unite them Properly understood, Ishvara is only a personification of Brahman

129 What is real? Something must be real Our illusions must be superimposed on something We know what this is: Atman From scripture From experience of ourselves From reasoning Hence Brahman, the whole of reality, must be equated with

Atman And not divided into Atman and something else, i.e., Purusha and Prakriti For then the relation between these two different things would be incomprehensible 130 All that I really know is my Self The one thing we do know: our own conscious experience And so we must deny the reality of the material world which includes minds

Samkhya is right that Liberation depends on the discrimination between the Self and everything else But this is just the first step 131 Maya Step 2: recognize that this something else, the material world, is an illusion (Maya) The distinction we make between the two is only provisional, only a first step

Then I am no longer a stranger in this world And so I experience freedom, self-completeness, bliss (Ananda) 132 The price of bliss seems too high The price for bliss: reject common sense altogether Why not just say that the relation between consciousness and the world is unintelligible? Advaitins cannot say that something doesnt exist

because it is not intelligible for they admit that Atman/Brahman is unintelligible Reply: but we directly intuit this in meditation 133 Idealism? The idealist route for denying the material world: to say that all we know of material objects are the perceptions and ideas we have in our minds (Bishop Berkeley)

Stable, persisting ideas are caused in us by God But for Advaita, minds, feelings, and perceptions too are unreal Suffering does not (really) exist. (Shankara) 134 Level one How understand this? Doctrine of Levels: Level onelower level We can indeed distinguish between real objects and unreal ones (e.g., hallucinations) Between causes and effects

Between this person and the next one Between the true god and false ones 135 Level two Level twohigher level No objects are real The effects of the one cause (Brahman) are merely apparent No individual selves exist Even the true god is an appearance

136 Analogies Analogies Between the sea and the froth But if the sea (Brahman) creates the froth (material world), the material world is still real Between space and the space in the pot Pantheism? Between the sun, and its reflection in pools There is no sun in the pool, but the reflection of the sun in the

pool is real No analogy is perfect (Shankara) Cooper: this is an understatement 137 Define real Shankara: objects at the lower level are unreal because they are not constant and eternal But this is a special (arbitrary) meaning for real Anything that changes would then, by this definition, be unreal

Is maya then an ordinary doctrine that everything changes dressed up in exciting, but misleading, terminology? A mad doctrine? A dull one that only seems mad? 138 An ordinary doctrine? 1) An ordinary, dull, doctrine, dressed up in exciting terms? Reality means that which is eternal and unchanging E.g., Pythagoras theorem

Hence temporal things would be unreal or maya But this is just using misleading terms to describe the ordinary, dull, common sense position 139 A mad doctrine? 2) But if it means what it says, it at first sounds completely crazy It says that the world of things around us are not real; are illusions, hallucinations, dreams

So it is important to think about the nature of dreams and reality Recall Chuang-tzu 140 141 Maybe its all a dream When we are dreaming, we think the dream is real But on waking we realize it is unreal

But then, might not our waking life be another dream, once removed? from which we will one day wake up, when we are enlightened? 142 Seeking pink elephants 1) Distinction between hallucination and reality The drunkard sees pink elephants But they disappear when he sobers up What makes the hallucination unreal?

It doesnt cohere with the rest of experience (when we become sober) A dream is unreal in this sense: it doesnt cohere with waking experience 143 Waking up from ordinary life 2) The dream world is sublated each morning when we awake, whereas the waking world remains until ultimate realization of Brahmans identity with the Self (atman). (Shankara) There is a direct intuition, a self-luminous flash

which contradicts ordinary experience If we havent had this experience, the closest we come is in deep sleep, in which there is no dream there is no waking world 144 Words Hence the special experience is indescribable But reason supports it When we recognize that the world of ordinary experience depends on words (shabda)

Gods, men, and the world originate from Shabda, word Words precede things. (Shankara) = linguistic idealism or linguistic relativism 145 Being as such Being as such is without shape or structure We supply these through our words and concepts Without these conventions on our part, thought and action would be impossible But there are different languages, different conventions The categories we use could be different from what they

are How then can we suppose that our way of looking at the world depicts reality as it is in itself? 146 What is Being? Brahman = Being We superimpose our constructs on this ultimate Reality, on what is, on Being which we experience within ourselves

In the visionary experience that all is one words and concepts lose all necessary connection to reality and we glimpse the seamless whole which our mental categories have divided Hence Advaita Vedanta is neither mad nor dull 147 Some problems 1) too much seems to rely on a special experience of direct intuition How tell the difference between a true special

experience and others, involving a different conception of reality? 2) Does Shankaras conventionalism go far enough? He holds that there is a permanent self (atman). But perhaps this too is a construction of words 148 Being at home? 3) How can I feel at home in such a Reality? of which there can be no articulate understanding of which the closest comparison is deep sleep

All these issues were already raised before Shankara by adherents of the greatest of the unorthodox schools, Buddhism 149 Bhagavad-Gita The main text of Advaita is the Bhagavad-Gita (Song of God) Krishna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra Seeing his cousins and kin on the opposing side He cannot fight and kill them

Krishna explains to Arjuna why he must fight 150 Neo-kinship and legalism Recall: India is a neo-kinship society In Greece the sons of Oedipus do fight and kill one another, and there is no report of their being unwilling to do so Its their sister, Antigone, who cries, but she is a woman, and immersed in the kinship world of the family and home

But Greece has rejected the kinship system for legalism 151 Krishnas Reply 12. It is not true that at any time I was not, nor thou, nor these kings of men; nor is it true that any of us shall ever cease to be hereafter. 13. As the soul passes physically through childhood and youth and age, so it passes on to the changing of the body. The self-composed man does not allow himself to be disturbed and blinded by this.

152 The transience of matter 14. The material touches, O son of Kunti, giving cold and heat, pleasure and pain, things transient which come and go, these learn to endure, O Bharata. 15. The man whom these do not trouble nor pain, O lion-hearted among men, the firm and wise who is equal in pleasure and suffering, makes himself apt for immortality. 153

Being and Non-being 16. That which really is, cannot go out of existence, just as that which is non-existent cannot come into being. The end of this opposition of 'is' and 'is not' has been perceived by the seers of essential truths. 154 Immortality 17. Know that to be imperishable by which all this is extended. Who can slay the immortal

spirit? 18. Finite bodies have an end, but that which possesses and uses the body is infinite, illimitable, eternal, indestructible. Therefore fight, O Bharata. 155 The true Self does not die What is killed is not the true Self, but the shadow, the illusion which does not really exist anyway. The true Self is eternally linked with the Self of

others: this is the true (spiritual, philosophical) meaning of kinship. 156 Do your duty and fight! Do your duty (Dharma) as a warrior prince your destiny in this life as determined by your caste duties without attachment to consequences (joy over victory, sorrow over deaths etc.) (Get off the emotional rollercoaster)

157 (1) Being 1. Being cannot come out of non-being 2. If once there was nothing at all, now there would be nothing. 3. Hence being is eternal 158 (2) Non-Being 1. Inasmuch as anything is not, it cannot be. 2. Nothing can come out of nothing.

3. Non-being is nothing and can never become anything 159 (3) That which changes 1. Changing beings seem to be a mixture of being and non-being 2. Changing things come into being from what they no longer are and pass away into what they are not yet. 3. Change includes both is and is not, being and non-being

4. But only being is; non-being is nothing! 5. So change is an illusion! (Maya) 160 (4) Who/what are you? Who are YOU really? A changing being? 1. You were a baby but are not one now 2. You will be an old woman, but are not this yet. 3. As an old woman you will no longer be what you are now. 4. Are YOU these changing forms that you tend to

identify with? 161 (5) Illusion of these fleeting forms Inasmuch as I am a changing being of time, I am focused on past and future, which do not exist. This mental attitude involves us in Maya (Illusion) My true being is in the present moment of Now, of Being, the moment of I AM Inasmuch as I AM, I AM Eternal, Divine Tat Tvam Asi (Great Sentence of Upanishads) That Thou Art

English and Sanscrit are Indo-European languages You are IT IT/You ARE! 162 The Great Sentence Tat Tvam Asi (Devanagari: , Vedic: tt tvam si), a Sanskrit phrase, translated variously as "Thou art that," (That thou art, That art thou, You are that, or That you are, or You're it) is one of the Mahvkyas (Grand Pronouncements) in Vedantic Sanatana Dharma. It originally occurs in the Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.7,[1] in the dialogue between Uddalaka and his

son vetaketu; it appears at the end of a section, and is repeated at the end of the subsequent sections as a refrain. The meaning of this saying is that the Self - in its original, pure, primordial state - is wholly or partially identifiable or identical with the Ultimate Reality that is the ground and origin of all phenomena. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tat_Tvam_Asi 163 (6) Practical Conclusions 1. Focus therefore on what you must do now, your duty in the reality of present Being, not on illusory ideas of past and future.

The Way for you is determined by your Duty (Dharma) 2. Dont dwell excessively on possible future consequences, which exist now only as imaginings in your mind. 3. Discover your true, immortal Self as a basis for action 4. This is not about contemplation but action. 164 Why being, and not nothing?

What is being? If at one time there was absolutely nothing, would there be anything now? Nothing can come out of nothing And so being must be eternal Hence only being is, and nothing is nothing at all Eternal is not just about the truths of mathematics but it is the nature of being/reality/Brahman itself! And yourself, inasmuch as you are. 165 Are changing things real?

What about ordinary changing things? Arent they real? But a changing thing is something that is not now what it was before A changing thing is something that is not now what it will be later Hence, changing things are a combination of being and non-being But non-being is nothing, only being is real Hence changing things are unreal, illusory (Maya) 166

Past and future What are you really worried about? 1) Something that happened yesterday But yesterday is gone; it no longer is 2) Something that will happen later But the future does not yet exist; it is not yet 3) Being in the present? Is there anything right now to worry about? Just focus on the lecture! (Its your dharma!) 167

Imagination Normally we are caught up in the past or future We imagine what happened before or what will happen later We treat what is unreal as real We live our lives mostly in our imagination, i.e., in an illusionmaya! The only reality is what is now 168 What about now?

But what is happening now? Try to focus on something that is purely here and now Its gone before you can grasp it! Is present being real, if it vanishes in a flash? But there is reality: We intuit this beingness that continues through the vanishing moments of time What is it? Advaita: the oneness of Atman/Brahman 169

Contemporary analogies Recall previous analogies of Shankara for Maya The froth on the sea The space in the pot The reflection of the sun in a pool of water Contemporary analogies from virtual reality Video games Movies 170 Avatar

In video games, the player creates an avatar to represent him or her in the game What is an avatar? In Indian religion: it is the incarnation of God/Brahman in a human appearance. Through the avatar the player enters the game as if he/she really participates in it Advaita Vedanta: this is how we should see our lives in general We are the God behind the avatar that we appear to be in the world See film, Avatar

171 Jakes new reality Jake eventually sides with his new experience, In his Avatar Navi body and world Back in his crippled human body, in the metaphorically crippled human world of advanced science and technology, he is overcome with a sense of unreality: Everything is backwards now. Like out there is the true world, and in here is the dream.

172 Trimurti (Hindu Trinity) and Avatars Brahman (Divine Nature) Brahma (as Creator) with Saraswati (Knowledge) Vishnu (as Preserver) with Lakshmi (Love)

Shiva (as Destroyer) with Kali (Transformation) or Parvati Gods and Goddesses Human Avatars Krishna with Buddha Radha

Arjuna, and YOU--when enlightened Ganesh 173 Movies When we watch a movie, we enter into it as if it were real In the film, we go to many places taking days, months, or years

But in reality we have gone nowhere, and it has only taken 2 hours. We are aware that this is only a movie. But we suspend disbelief and enter the experience as if it were real 174 Mindfulness Brahman = Being Not the being of an instant that vanishes in a flash But the being of the framework within which all the events of our lives pass

Being is like the movie screen in which we perform our lives Time passes and we go many places But everything always takes place in a persisting present or presence Practical lesson: practice being in the present, or mindfulness 175 Life as the play of God The basic recurring theme in Hindu

Mythology is the creation of the world by the self-sacrifice of God - 'sacrifice' in the original sense of 'making sacred' - whereby God becomes the world which, in the end becomes again God. This creative activity of the Divine is called *lila*, the play of God, and the world is seen as the stage of the divine play. 176 Life is magical Like most of Hindu mythology, the myth of lila has strong magical flavour. Brahman is the great magician who transforms himself into

the world and he performs this feat with his 'magic creative power', which is the original meaning of maya in the Rig Veda. The word maya - one of the most important terms in Indian philosophy - has changed its meaning over the centuries. 177 From the 'might', or 'power', of the divine actor and magician, it came to signify the psychological state of anybody under the spell of the magic play. As long as we confuse the myriad forms of the divine lila with reality,

without perceiving the unity of Brahman underlying all these forms, we are under the spell of maya. 178 Maya, therefore, does not mean that the world is an illusion, as is often wrongly stated. The illusion merely lies in our point of view, if we think that the shapes and structures, things and events, around us are realities of nature, instead of realizing that they are concepts of our measuring and categorizing minds.

179 Maya is the illusion of taking these concepts for reality, of confusing the map with the territory. From The Tao of Physics by Fritjof Capra. 180 Maya and Lila The world of appearances taken to be real, independent of us = Maya The appearance results from our way of looking at reality

Reality as it is for us, not as it is in itself Recognizing this The playful creation of Brahman (Lila) But Atman is Brahman: its our own play It is there, but illusorily Dreams too are there, are real, but as dreams Lucid dreaming: being conscious in the dream 181 Maya Maya: When we dont know the truth of

Atman/Brahman (Avidya) We take the world around us as real We are caught up in our desires and fears, and suffer (Duhkha) But it is we ourselves, through our ignorant false distinctions, that create the illusion (Karma) We are caught up in Samsara, the wheel of birth and death 182 Lila However, when we know that all this is the divine Lila, the play of Brahman

then we can enjoy the illusion and play our role in it (Dharma) without getting caught up in it And so we experience Moksha, liberation Q: What do we do once we are liberated? A: We play! 183 Why does Brahman create the illusion? If true reality is Atman/Brahman, why is there this play of Maya/Lila? I.e., why does God create the world?

Why does Brahman create the magical illusion? To experience something it is necessary first to experience the opposite A wealthy person can theoretically know what wealth is without having this experience But only someone who was poor can really experience wealth 184 Experiencing divinity For God to experience being God, He/She/It must create the illusion of not being God

Hence Brahman creates the illusion of a separate reality, with separate selves, and all their suffering in order to come back to the truth of the universal oneness of Being, and experience its bliss When we discover our true Self, Atman when in meditation we experience the inner witness that is our fundamental self-consciousness and connect this inner Self with Being this is the blissful realization of Brahman experiencing being Brahman 185

Level three Level one: ordinary life, taken as reality Duality of world and self Level two: Atman/Brahman Non-duality Then what? Level three: come back to the first level of the illusion And enjoy playing your life

Maya is transformed into Lila 186 5 Buddhism 187 Buddhist Philosophy and Religion The various Hindu philosophies just examined are only remotely linked to Hindu religion Buddhist philosophy is more closely connected to institutional Buddhist religions But for Buddhists there is no Creator God

Gods exist, but are not worshipped: they need Enlightenment too And Buddhist philosophy, with its concern for nirvana, is distinct from popular Buddhist religious practices with concern for acquiring merit (good karma) for a desirable rebirth 188 What does Buddha look like? Buddhas with round stomachs? Budai is a deity in Chinese folklore, with an

occasional presence in Japan and Vietnam. He is invariably depicted as a fat and smiling guy, and people may have Budai and the Buddha mixed. When Did the Buddha Become Fat? Psychology Today, July 17, 2012 See, Keanu Reeves, Little Buddha (1993) 189 Early life Founder: Siddartha Gautama (480-400 BCE) Protected from the outside world by his father the

king, at the age of 29 he went outside the palace and discovered suffering (Duhkha): disease, old age and death He studied, wandered and practiced asceticism until his enlightenment: buddha = enlightened He founded a community (sangha) who followed his teachings 193 Larger historical context 1) Original kinship groups, living close to nature Animistic outlook: oneness of spirit everywhere

2) Rise of hierarchical state societies with developed technology Belief in a fall from an earlier state (e.g., Adam and Eve in the Bible) 3) Eastern cultures preserve kinship relations The West breaks from them 194 Buddhism creates a spiritual republic 4) Iron age: (1) Freedom of democracy and self-control by the common

people, founding kinship republics (2) Loss of the republics with triumph of kingdoms (3) Caste society of India due to Aryan conquest: neo-kinship 5) Problem of philosophy: reconcile the idea of iron-age freedom with the loss of freedom India: the six doctrines and their philosophical interpretations Buddhism: reject caste and restore the republic on a spiritual plane: the Sangha 195 Buddhist Republics

The monks were intellectually and spiritually free. Decisions were made through group discussion, perpetuating the pattern of the early republics of the north Indian hills. (Spodek 286) The Teachings Texts of his teachings (the Pali canon) were written centuries after his death He was sometimes impatient of esoteric/speculative philosophical issues focusing on the practical matter of liberation

The Ten Open Questions: Is the world finite? He says examining these is not profitable Buddhas Teachings 1) The Four Noble Truths 2) The Eightfold Path 3) Nirvana 197 Four Noble Truths 1) life as a whole is duhkha Suffering, sorrow, frustration

2) Duhkha, and the whole cycle of rebirth is due to craving For pleasure and riches but also for the delights of heaven And even for Nirvana 3) To end Duhkha: overcome craving 4) To overcome craving, follow the Eightfold Path 198 4 Noble Truth: the Eightfold Path th

1. Training in wisdom: right views, understanding right mindedness 2. Training in practical life and ethics: right speech, right action, right livelihood 3. Training in meditation: right effort right attentiveness right concentration

Nirvana 1) Extinction As a candle is extinguished 2) It exists, but cant be described 3) It is the negation of the life with which we are familiar Later Buddhists divide on what this means 1) total annihilation 2) a joyous place 3) something that is not separate from our everyday life 200

The Six Doctrines again All these teachings are found in the classic Indian teachings of the six doctrines: samsara (cycle of rebirth or reincarnation), karma (how our actions keep us on this wheel) duhkha (suffering > craving) avidya (ignoranceto be overcome through the teachings, right understanding, meditation) dharma (moral component of Eightfold Path moksha (the release from suffering, called Nirvana) 201

Distinctive Buddhist ideas: 1 1) No self (anatman) Duhkha/Craving is rooted in belief in a persisting self The purification of the self in Samkhya and Advaita Vedanta doesnt go far enough Even a pure witness consciousness preserves the notion of a fixed self, and so craving All the problems of how the self is related to the reality vanish if there is no self Samkhya/Yoga: Cooperation of purusha and prakriti? Shankara: How is the Self reflected in the empirical world like the image of the sun in water? 202

Arguments for Anatman (1) A chariot seems to be one thing But it is really only a composition of various parts which are changed over time as they wear out The parts of the Self (the skandhas)

Our physical parts: strength, height, weight Our feelings and moods Our likes and dislikes Our goals in life Our ideas about life Where is there anything permanent in all this? Which of these is the Self (Atman)? All together? Changes in all these matters create suffering when we cling to a fixed aspect 203

Why does Purusha/Atman need eyes? (2) The Samkhyans and the Vedantins both agree that Purusha or Atman is nothing physical, psychological, mental But if there is a pure witnessing consciousness distinct from all this how is it that our conscious experiences are constrained by our perceptual apparatus? Why should the Selfs awareness of visual data depend on the eyesi.e., on what is not the Self? Why does the Purusha need eyes at all? 204

The Purusha/Atman is useless (3) This idea of a pure detached consciousness explains nothing at all in our lives Its useless, pointless The Six Doctrines do not require such a Self: Rebirth: not the same self in a different body, but a continuation of the components from the previous life in different configurations some old ones continuing some new ones added 205

Continuity, not sameness This is also true of the continuation within one life The young King Milinda is continuous with the older one, without the need for any identical self His reborn continuation can enjoy or suffer from the actions of the previous incarnation Moksha does not require an eternal self When the craving ceases, thats all that matters Its pointless to ask who or what exists then 206

Distinctive Buddhist ideas: 2 2) Dependent origination: Everything depends on something else Not causal dependence Nyaya: one thing depends on some other thing happening before Samkyha: smoke depends on, comes out of, fire But the dependence of a thing on its constituents A chariot depends on wheels Or logical dependence: the existence of A depends on B if

A cannot be conceived of without B Suffering depends on ignorance 207 12 links of the chain Life is a closed chain of 12 links 1) Craving for honor, pleasure, etc. (arbitrary starting point) 2) leads to grasping after things 3) And this grasping after things through Karma leads to rebirth 4) and hence further aging, suffering 5) Craving presupposes feeling

6) which supposes sensory perception 208 7) which depends on embodied agency 8) Agency depends on the ability to discriminate between different goals 9) which requires will and motivation 10) which depend on spiritual ignorance regarding the pointlessness of worldly goals 11) Ignorance feeds on suffering and confusion 12) while ignorance leads to more suffering and confusion 209

The 12 Nidanas 210 No role for a Self There is no role of the soul or Self in all this Belief in its reality is due to a distorted need or craving for stability and security Salvation/liberation: If motives > agency > craving > rebirth, etc. presuppose spiritual ignorance

then heeding the teachings of Buddha breaks the chain and the person is freed from the cycle of rebirth and suffering 211 The Buddhist schism: 1) Theravada Theravada (Ancient Way of thought) Earliest school Holds that the goal is individual enlightenment of a worthy one (arbat) Realist and atomist metaphysics Just as the material world is a conglomeration of different elements, so is the self

Recall: Nyaya/Vaisheshika But the plurality of selves (Purushas) is taken further: the self is itself a plurality, a conglomeration 212 2) Mahayana Mahayana (Great Vehicle)later development Goal is the bodhisattva committed to lead all beings to absolute nirvana Anti-realist and/or anti-atomist: The external world is merely thought seen as a multiplicity [of objects].

Historical context Buddhism takes on social dimensions Is incorporated into Hinduism Attacked by Islamic invaders of India Becomes a major religion in other countries (China, Tibet, Thailand, Japan ) 213 The power of dreams Two main Mahayana schools Yogacara or Vijnanavada (consciousness doctrine) Madhyamaka (Middle Way)

Vasubandhu (of the Vijnanavada school): Even if there were external objects, we could never distinguish them from our own perceptions Its all in our consciousness, a storehouse Objection: how explain the power of things over us if there are no things? Vasubandhu: Consider the power of an erotic dream over the dreamer. Does this prove that the dream is real? 214 Back to the Self? But the Madhyamaka school replies to the

Vijnanavada: They think of the mind as a kind of place in which images exist, a storehouse consciousness of all the perceptions But this restores the notion of a Self Main exponent: Nagarjuna (2nd c. CE), and his interpreter, Candrakirti Perhaps the most sophisticated Indian school, Similar to the Prajnaparamita (perfection of wisdom) sutras of the first few centuries CE 215 There are no things

Nagarjuna: There are absolutely no things, nowhere and none, that arise. Not nihilism But the denial of substances: things that have independent existence, not dependent on anything else The no-self doctrine of dependence of one state on another is extended to things Nothing has such independent own being (svabhava) 216 What type of dependence?

Not a theory of causal connections between things For cause and effect have distinct being But logical or conceptual interdependence E.g., relatives in a family: cousins, brothers and sisters: each requires the others to be what they are Kinship background! Argument: Substances would have to either be beginingless which they obviously are not or to originate: out of themselves? Out of something else? At random, by chance? 217

Possible sources of things Self-causing? Impossible Caused by something else? But if A is distinct from B, why would it cause B, and not C or D? Random? But the natural world is not random but orderly 218 Emptiness

Hence the phenomenal world is an emptiness (sunyata) containing no solid, independent substances But this is not absolute nothingness Hence this Madhyamaka is a middle way between these extremes the atomist Nyaya/Vaisheshikas and the Maya of Advaita Vedantins 219 Relativity The things we pick out, tables, trees, persons

carved out of a seamless, monistic network according to our practical interests and the conventions of our linguistic or conceptual schemes They are doubly relative Any item depends on its place in the whole, its contrast with other items (as individual words depend on the whole of the language) And on human beings: their practices and conceptual schemes 220

What is nirvana? Contrary to Samkhya, there are not two worlds The world of things (Prakriti) The emptiness of the witnessing consciousness (Purusha) But the world of things is the emptiness Nirvana = thinglessness and selflessness We call this world phenomenal, but just the same is called nirvana when viewed, sub specie aeternitatis, without the categories of ordinary, conventional experience. (Candrakirti) 221

Triple equation Samsara = sunyata = nirvana There is just one world viewed from increasingly adequate perspectives Speculations about what nirvana is, about a special place or plane separate from the ordinary world, are senseless The person who recognizes this triple equation is enlightened Enlightenment is to recognize that everything stands in its proper place within the harmonious whole (Nagarjuna) Otherwise it is all out of joint (duhkha)

222 Liberation in the world, not from it Liberation is not about escaping the world But about obtaining a right philosophical perspective on it living the sense of the insubstantiality of things and selves From this perspective, the person who grasps after the things of the world for the sake of his/her self looks pathetic and futile

223 6 Ethics and Indian Philosophy 224 Spiritual and Immoral? Main ethical works: not the above technical schools of philosophy, but Kama-Sutra (Pleasure-Sutra) A bedroom companion for lovers The Bhagavad-Gita (Song of the Lord)

Discourse on duty and devotion Paradox of India: the most spiritual and the most immoral Hegel: in India the other side of worship consists in a wild tumult of excess. 225 Duties in life Practical Goal of B-G: to convince the warrior Arjuna to do his duty and slay his kinsmen NB: this is a kinship society: but what is true

kinship? Goal of the Kama-Sutra of Vatsyayana To aid individuals to fulfill their marital duty as householders 226 Dharma Ashrama-varna-dharma: Moral law (governing individuals according to their Stage in life (Ashrama): A student or aged person would not have marital duties, but would have a

duty of celibacy centrality of the family Caste (Varna): Arjuna belongs to the Kshatriya caste. A Brahmin would not have a duty to fight 227 Detachment The goal of detachment in both spheres The person acquainted with the true principles of [erotic] science is sure to obtain mastery over his senses.

Kama-Sutra is not about wild sensual abandonment In the Gita, duties are to be performed without attachment so that the actions hardly are ones own 228 Moral uniformity Lack of a large literature on morality seems due to 1) Indian consensus on these matters (of caste and stage of life) An exception: the materialists (Carvaka school, that

didnt survive), with their ideals of eating delicious food, keeping company of young women, using fine clothes, perfumes, etc. General agreement on the virtues: truth-telling, non-violence, temperance, etc. Jains: against killing insects 229 The main goal is moksha 2) The main goal of liberation, moksha The duties of life are hardly primary if the goal is to escape life

Karma: both good and evil actions keep one on the wheel of samsara The person who knows Brahman is devoid of good deeds, devoid of evil deeds (Kaushitaki Upanishad) 230 If the primary goal is moksha, why is dharma important? The problem: if the goal is moksha, why be concerned at all with dharma? Some cynics say that dharma is for the masses, to produce an

orderly society, so that a privileged few can pursue moksha More common line: Dharma is a means toward moksha: 1) One who follows the moral law has a better future life, where the pursuit of moksha is facilitated He will have access to sacred literature And not be reborn as an animal or ignorant peasant 231 Preliminary or auxiliary 2) Virtuous behavior is good training for developing physical and psychological traits

self-discipline, mastery of the senses, absence of self-centeredness that facilitate the philosophical and contemplative understanding on which moksha depends Dharma is a preliminary or auxiliary to the acquisition of knowledge of the Self (Shankara) 232 Instrumental and contingent But the relation of dharma to moksha is then merely instrumental,

and so contingent, unnecessary Shankara: some people can dispense with the duties of caste and stage of life Pantanjali: some yogins can bypass the moral discipline of yoga 233 An immoral society? This conflicts with the notion of Western philosophy that moral life is that in and through which a person realizes his highest aspirations as a human

being trumping all other considerations In this perspective, Max Weber denied that there is any real sense of morality in India 234 The Gita deepens the connection But this view (that dharma/morality is only instrumental) is challenged by the Bhagavad-Gita which explains why dharma is intrinsic to moksha Time: 200 CE

Location: a section of the epic Mahabharata 95 episodes on Indian TV Arjuna, leader in battle, has doubts about the validity of killing his kin on the other side Krishna, his charioteer, an avatar of the god Vishnu: Think of the duty and do not waver. There is no greater good for a warrior than to fight in a righteous war. 235 Two paths to perfection Arguments 1) No one really dies

because Being/Brahman is eternal, and Atman, your true self, is one with Brahman 2) There are two roads to perfection: path of action (karma-yoga) and path of wisdom (jnana-yoga) Recall Daoism: path of the sage, path of the craftsman 236 Meditation is also action Meditation is itself a kind of action

For not even for a moment can a man be without action So it cannot be by refraining from action that a man attains freedom. 237 What produces karmic fruit? It is not actions as such that bear karmic fruit but the motives behind them Arjunas actions must be pure, free from the bonds of desire: duty for dutys sake

not the goal of glory not even the prosperity of ones own people But why doesnt the motive of duty for dutys sake produce karmic fruit? 238 Who/what is acting? An action can only bear karmic fruit if they are his actions 1) all actions take place in time by the interweaving of the forces of Nature But the deluded person thinks that he himself is the actor Hence it is not Arjuna who is responsible for his actions, but

Nature, the beginningless process of cause and effect Recall: Samkhya/Yoga: nature is Prakriti, including your own thoughts and mentally determined actions Purusha is beyond these 239 The real Self 2) Even to grant that, in an everyday sense, Arjuna is the actor, this is not the real Arjuna, the true self, the purusha: distinct from the body and intelligence

engaged in action (Samkhya and Yoga influence) Arjuna should think: I am not doing any work It is the servants of my soul that are working. Distinguishing himself from the agent of his actions he no longer suffers or enjoys the fruits of the action He is liberated 240 Overcoming the conflict Hence dharma is elevated from being an instrumental means to moksha

into a direct, self-sufficient path of perfection overcoming the conflict between spiritual and practical preoccupations 241 Problems arise But questions arise 1) Ideal of niskama-karma (total and selfconscious detachment from ones actions) Why not any kind of action? E.g., a mafioso who doubts whether to gun down a rival gang member

242 Western concepts Western concept of morality: You should want to feel responsible for your actions Assuming responsibility: part of maturity and dignity You become the person you make yourself Its bad faith to pretend your actions are not your own Chilling portrait of a serene and smiling Arjuna cutting down his enemy

Gandhi: this is a metaphor for spiritual struggle 243 244 The moral subject The moral subject in Western thought A person of this world, an embodied, motivated agent not a victim or creature of fate or natural necessity able, within limits, to transcend the constraints of his situation

245 Two possibilities But the corresponding moral subject in Indian philosophy 1) is not the embodied person The Gita, Samkhyans, etc.: this is a plaything or puppet of nature 2) Is it the purusha or atman? But this is not of this world, a spectator or witness, which does not engage in acts of willing or moral

effort 246 A third possibility? Between these two there seems to be no room for the moral subject of the West A self-responsible individual Hence the attraction (for the West) of Buddhism which does not take these paths A Middle Way (Madhyamaka) between the atomist Nyaya/Vaisheshikas (Western Materialism)

and the Maya of Advaita Vedantins (the spiritualism which hold that world is an illusion) 247 Room for a moral subject? But how is Buddhism compatible with the Western moral subject when Buddhist doctrine of anatman denies that there is a subject? Is there room for the moral subject in the doctrine of the Gita? We recognize our duty in the present circumstances

Ultimately our being in these circumstances is our choice (Karma) 248 Avatar Recall analogy of the avatar The immediate actor is the avatar, not you You are behind the avatar who is playing a role decided by You Ultimately this higher You is Brahman playing at not being Brahman pretending not to be God so as to experience being God

If this is fate, being a plaything of nature it is you who have chosen your fate It is you who are playing the role you have chosen You/Atman are Brahman/God: you create your own life 249 Expressing the historical situation Indian experience: republican experience of freedom of Iron Age This freedom is lost in the rise of the feudal monarchies of India

The role of philosophy: explain how seemingly unfree people (maya) are really free (lila) 250 Why not choose to be a Mafioso? Why not choose to be a Nazi? But the member of the mafia is not in charge of his life The Nazi says that race is what determines us to be what we are But these beliefs are incompatible with the ideal of

freedom We cannot choose not to have a choice! Hence our duties must allow for this freedom that is our fundamental truth And so not every and any way of life can be a matter of duty 251 Zen Buddhism 6, 3 252 Jewel in the Lotus

Origin of Zen Buddhism Buddha gives a silent sermon He holds up a flower and says nothing The monks stare at him, uncomfortably One of his monks, Mahakasyapa, suddenly smiles He is enlightened

His smile was handed down to 28 successive masters of Zen Buddhist revolution Genuine reformation or revolution in Buddhism Buddhas Flower Sermon: The simplicity of the essential message has become disguised by a crust of abstract doctrine Hence Zen Buddhists exaggerate the irrational nature of Zen Its koans: What is the sound of one hand clapping? But these practices do not contradict a sophisticated

philosophical understanding 255 A Cup of Tea Nan-in, a Japanese master during the Meiji era (18681912), received a university professor who came to inquire about Zen. Nan-in served tea. He poured his visitor's cup full, and then kept on pouring. The professor watched the overflow until he no longer could restrain himself. "It is overfull. No more will go in!" "Like this cup," Nan-in said, "you are full of your own opinions and speculations. How can I show you Zen unless you first empty your cup?"

256 Buddhist developments Zen reflects classic Mahayana Texts, of the Madhyamaka (Middle Way) tendency The Diamond and Lankavatara Sutras but charges these with veering into transcendentalism, contrasting an empty phenomenal world and an eternal nirvana leaning toward a closet Vedantism

Rejects: The Pure Land school pictured Nirvana as a heaven full of divine Buddhas 257 American Zen Western versions of Zen Flower power of the sixties aspects in accord with Zen Attractive message of living simply and spontaneously in our complex and artificial society One can live a spiritual life without complex baggage of scriptural scholarship and idols

But not in accord: Zen as a quick fix of spirituality, safer than LSD Seeing Zen as an irrationalism against science 258 259 260 Irrationalism? Zen is the most irrational, inconceivable thing in the world, not subject to logical analysis or intellectual treatment

D. T. Suzuki, once the most influential Zen writer in US Fails to distinguish Zen philosophy and Zen enlightenment Intuition does not rule out importance of an articulate philosophical framework Zen practice and Zen philosophy The philosophy explains the meaning of the koans, the slaps, etc. 261 History

Zen from Chinese chan and from Sanskrit dhyana meaning meditation. brought to China in 6th-7th centuries but most influential in Japan Most acute philosophical articulation in the writings of Dogen (d. 1253), of the Soto sect Rival sect: Rinzai, which focused on use of koans There is not much in Buddhism after all (Rinzai) I.e., not all the cumbersome baggage that has been developed around Buddhism disguising a simple message 262

Zen teachings Distinctive contributions of Zen at the level of doctrine 1) We are Buddha-mind 2) Mountains are mountains 263 1) We are the Buddha-Mind All beings are already in nirvana Lankavatara Sutras (Madhyamaka tendency of Mahayana Buddhism)

Enlightenment and intuitive wisdom are from the outset possessed by men of the world. Hui-Neng Chan Buddhist (d. 713) To be enlightened = to possess Buddha-mind? Better to say that we are Buddha-mind (Dogen 1200-1253, Japan) 264 Didnt Buddha become enlightened? Hence rejection of grace, heaven of Pure Land Buddhism

But also not Brahman some state above/beyond the ordinary phenomenal world. But what about the teaching that our condition is one of ignorance and suffering (Duhkha)? And isnt it said that Buddha attained enlightenment? Meaning that before this point he was ignorant, unenlightened? Perhaps: his enlightenment was dormant, or only potential, before this? 265 What kind of ignorance?

Is this like saying that I am ignorant of chemistry, but have the capacity to learn it? So with the right information I can learn that there is no Self? But enlightenment is not about information: Its a turning round of consciousness No Self Not a solution to a problem, or answer to a question But a way of rejecting such questions, Zen is a dissolution, not a solution 266

The disease and the medicine I merely cure disease and set people free. Lin-Chi (Linji, d. 866) The disease: self-reflection Im such a jerk Me, the jerk I, the witness to the jerk We divide the world and ourselves into subject and object We need a medicine for the mental paralysis which comes from excessive self-consciousness (Alan Watts) 267

Grammar and the Self The grammar of self-reflective judgments Implies that there is a Self that reflects And also that acts: a controlling center of will, pilot of the ship of my life My misunderstanding of myself: Confusions of self-reflection way of life which I try to live, which reinforces the confusions about the self 268

Let it all go How cure the disease? Just let the body and mind drop off. (Dogen) Our decisions and intentions are events that just happen, not the dictates of a controlling subject Whatever runs counter to the mind and will of ordinary people hinders the law of Buddha 1) We begin with the simple life of innocence 2) Then we get the disease of reflection 3) And so we need to return to this original state 269

Homecoming No difference between the simple peasant and the enlightened sage? Its like a higher octave note: a return to C but on a higher level A homecoming A return to oneself after a period of seeming division, but not a return to a Self Petern Matthiessen: to glimpse ones own true nature is a kind of homegoing that needs no home, like that waterfall on the upper Suli Gad that turns to mist before touching the earth and rises once again into the sky.

270 2) Mountains are once more mountains Distinctive contributions of Zen at the level of doctrine 1) We are Buddha-mind 2) Mountains are mountains Re the nature of the external world and our relation to it Standard idea of Buddhism: the conception of the world is shaped by that of our selves No Self the world is not made up of individual substances Recall the triple equation of Nagarjuna:

Samsara (empirical world) Sunyata (emptiness, dependent origination) Nirvana 271 Removing false categories Zen seems to share the view that Nirvana is not a different world from samsara But only the same world without the false categories of self and substance Hence no basis for grasping after things: The craving that is the source of suffering Also, the articulation of the world in classes is due to human

convention All things were originally given rise to by man (Hui-Neng) The world as a seamless network of relations (Nagarjunas dependent origination) within which separate things are picked out by human conventions 272 The in-itselfness of things But Dogen tells us to see things properly accept them the way they are. Accept things as they come, independent

Thus we should recognize the in-itselfness of things Otherwise this is like the Hindu Maya and leads to an uncaring indifference to the world But how reconcile this with the doctrine of samsara as empty? 273 Three stages Ching-Yuan (Qingyuan Weixin, 9th cent.) 1) Before a man studies Zen, to him mountains are mountains ;

2) after he gets insight into Zen, mountains are not mountains ; I.e., he has read Nagarjuna, and sees mountains as empty The mountain is big and beautiful = human conventions, measurements 3) but when he really attains the abode of rest, mountains are once more mountains. Direct experience of the thing, wordless, non-conceptual 274 Independence and relationship To say this is a mountain is a human convention

A Martian may not see three mountains but one trimountain Two positions must be reconciled Nothing is except in relation to everything else (Nagarjuna) Each thing is independent (Dogen) Clue: Compare Japanese painting called sumi-e with a Constable landscape 275 276

277 The universe in a tall bamboo Dogen: the entire universe manifests itself in a tall bamboo. It gathers its environment around it And through doing so takes on its special identity The truth of dependent origination does not mean that the object is dissolved and has no reality of its own = the position of the person at the second stage

But in the Zen awakening mountains are really mountains in themselves and yet there is no hindrance between [things] everything is interfusing. (Abe, Zen and Western Philosophy) 278 279 The world in a grain of sand To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower, Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour.

William Blake, Auguries of Innocence 280 From theory to practice Philosophical contributions of Zen Enlightenment is the dissolution of wrong questions that seduce us into a fruitless search for self not the overcoming of ignorance and misperception by means of a true, enlightened understanding The things of the world maintain concrete individuality as unique nodes in a holistic network of relations

not logically independent substances How do these ideas affect practice? Meditation, everyday behavior, moral action 281 Enlightenment Meditation: not a means to enlightenment but an expression of enlightenment the operation of Buddha-nature Enlightenment is not entry into a separate realm

but thinking without self-reflection and intellectual calculations The notion of sudden enlightenment is misleading Sometimes there are intense moments But awakening is not a matter of information or theory that can be acquired slowly or suddenly 282 Koans Why are there Zen practices, such as koans? 1) Iconoclastic anecdotes: If you see the Buddha, kill the Buddha

= against theistic conceptions 2) What is the sound of one hand clapping? Seemingly well-formed questions imply false understandings E.g., What is the I which is aware of myself? 283 Three features of the flowing mind Mark of zazen (sitting meditation) The minds freely flowing from one object to another without becoming stopped or fixated

Objection: perhaps spontaneity and lack of concentration is applicable to sword fighting, but not to brain surgery Three features of the flowing mind Respect the instruments and not impose alien use on them Not an inflexible plan, but openness to contingencies Not being preoccupied with oneself 284 Not I shot but it shot These are the features of the tea-master, who respects his implements,

the swordsman, who recognizes that things just happen and the archer, who is not focused on himself: not I shot the arrow, but it shot (But then, how is this compatible, as Cooper claims, with the idea of Western morality? The responsible moral subject?) 285 Why be committed to the liberation of others? Why not then become a free booting samurai?

(films of Kurosawa) Why be concerned with social obligations? Argument: one who is committed to his own liberation should be committed to that of others too But if the commitment is to ones own liberation, why be concerned with others? Isnt it a distraction to be concerned with others? The call for compassion seems tacked on, not fundamental 286 No Self concern for others

The Mahayana ideal of the bodhisattva, committed to others doesnt make sense if the individual is a separate self But Mahayana doctrine of dependent origination: there are no separate selves One cannot say This bundle of experiences and its future is my sole concern because it is mine. The doctrine of no Self (anatman) dissolves the false question: Why should I be concerned with the welfare of others? 287

Recall historical context Rise of reflective thinking in commerce Why is x amount of wheat = y amount of wine? The same monetary value Rational thought points to deeper truths underlying ordinary experience Zen: this is a disease of our modern world for which Zen is the cure Return to the time before reflection sets in But do so consciously (reflectively) 288

Buddhism goes to China Historical context of Zen Buddhism Buddhists leave (are driven out of) India Zen Buddhism originated in China Chinese philosophy arose in a period before the development of commerce, iron, alphabetical writing Commercial society is the context for a rationally organized philosophy Merchants are one of the four basic castes in India When Buddhism goes to China it develops a philosophy that is negative to discursive, step-by-step

philosophy It goes back to the intuitionism of Daoism 289 Irrationalism is rational A philosophy that negates philosophy? So maybe D. T. Suzuki was right: Zen is the most irrational, inconceivable thing in the world, not subject to logical analysis or intellectual treatment 290

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