Implementation of Benchmarking Guidelines and Continuous ...

Implementation of Benchmarking Guidelines and Continuous ...

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) ON COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS WONG WAI KEE1, CHUA SIEW SIANG1, LAM KAI KUN2 1 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya. 2 Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society. INTRODUCTION Continuing Pharmacy Education (CPE) is a lifelong learning process a passive uptake process CPD all activities that a pharmacist can do to maintain his/her competence & to develop his/her professional capabilities active learning & searching for opportunities to

upgrade ones skills and knowledge. INTRODUCTION Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Figure 1: The 4 steps cycle of CPD Source: RPSGB 20031 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain 2003, Plan and Record. Retrieved July 29, 2006, from http://www.uptodate.org.uk/P lanandRecord/Pharm_PandR/ Pharm_PandR_main.pdf 1 INTRODUCTION Malaysia: Medical doctors, dentists & pharmacists are supposed to complete at least 30 CPD/CPE points annually Govt. sector part of annual evaluation Private sector still voluntary OBJECTIVES 1. To determine the extent CPs have participated in CPD. 2. To assess the number of CPD points that is

acceptable by the CPs and the time frame for making CPD mandatory. 3. To identify CPD activities that community pharmacists will be interested to participate. METHODOLOGY 4 CPs 15 CPs Exclusion: 1.Ceased operation 2.Shifted 3.Chain pharmacy with no pharmacist [ 1271 CPs] Phone follow-up & via HQ of Chain Figure 2: Flowchart of Methodology Nov 2006 Feb 2007 371 respondents (29.2%) Table 1: Demographic Data of Respondents

Particular of respondents Gender (n=370) Female Male Age (n=363): 37.3+8.9 21 30 31 40 41 50 51 60 >60 Yrs. as CPs (n=362): 15 6 10 11 15 16 20 >20 Types of employment (n=369) Self-employment/ Share Holder Full time employee Part time/ Locum No. of respondents(%) 212 (57.3%) 158 (42.7 %) 99 (27.3%) 146 (40.2%) 81 (22.3%)

29 (8.0%) 8 (2.2%) 113 116 52 47 34 (31.2%) (32.0%) (14.4%) (13.0%) (9.4%) 203 (55.0%) 160 (43.4% ) 6 (1.6% ) Mandatory CPD 91.9% were aware that CPD has been introduced 93.8% agreed that CPD helps to ensure CPs are in touch with current therapy2 12.4% knew their CPD points for 2005 Mean points+SD = 11.7 + 13.2 / Median = 8.5 72.8% felt 30 CPD points/year was difficult to achieve 32.6% < 2 years

74.4% < 5 years supported mandatory CPD Swainson & Silcock (2004) Pharm J; 272:290-3 2 Figure 3: Number of C PD points suggested by the respondents (n=346) Number of respondents (%) 120 100 98 (28.3%) 92 (26.6%) 80 69 (19.9%) 65 (18.8%) 60

40 20 14 (4.0%) 4 (1.2%) 4 (1.2%) 0 1-5 6 - 10 11 - 15 16 - 20 21 - 25 Number of C PD points 26 - 30 Others Table 2: Support for mandatory CPD Factors

Age (n=349) 21 30 31 40 41 50 >50 Gender (n=355) Female Male Yrs. as CPs (n=348) 1 10 years >10 years CPD mandatory <2 years (%) Agreed Total p value 39 (41.5%) 46 (32.6%) 27(35.1%) 4 (10.8%) 94 141

77 37 0.010* 75 (37.7%) 40 (25.6%) 199 156 0.016* 82 (37.3%) 220 32 (25.0%) 128 0.019* Gender, age & yrs of practice correlated with attitude towards CPD. Older pharmacists were less likely to support mandatory CPD. Table 2: Support for mandatory CPD

Factors CPD mandatory <2 years (%) Agreed Types and Ownership (n= 355) I, by non-pharmacists I, by pharmacists C, by a group of pharmacists C, by corporate body Type of employment (n=354) Self-employed Employees 21(36.8%) 56(26.4%) 6 (30.0%) 33 (50.0%) 50 (25.8%) 64 (40.0%) Total p value 57

212 20 66 0.004** 194 160 0.004** Female pharmacists between 21 to 30 years old, with shorter working experience and employed by large corporate bodies were more likely to support mandatory CPD. Similar results were obtained by Mottram et al. (2002)4 4 Mottram et al. (2002) Pharma J; 269: 618-22. F ig ure 4: Obs tac les for ac hieving required C P D points (n=371 ) 37 (10.0% ) Others 56 (15.1% )

T y pes of P roblems L ac k of unders tanding 60 (16.2% ) L ac k of interes t 91 (24.5% ) L ac k of internet 211 (56.9% ) Ins uffi c ient ac tiv itie s 213 (57.1% ) C os t 269 (72.7% ) Other c ommitment 281 (75.9% )

Venue too far 329 (88.7% ) L ac k of tim e 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Number of res pondents (% ) Similar to a study in Nottingham by Attewell et al. (2005)5 5

Attewell, Blenkinsopp & Black (2005) Pharm J; 271: 519-24 350 Figure 5: Preferred CPD activities (n=370) 41 (11.1%) As p res enter/s p eak er 63 (17.0%) R es earc h 100 (27.0%) P o s t-g raduate prog . 167 (45.1%) T y pes of C P D ac tiv itie s C ong res s / S c ien tific Meetin g S elf-imp rov ement c ours es 219 (59.3%) 225 (60.8%)

C as e D is c us s ion P rov ide P harm C are 240 (64.9%) D is tanc e L earning 248 (67.0%) 255 (68.9%) Works h op C ours es 274 (74.1%) 294 (79.7%) S DL 312 (84.6%) S eminars 0 50 100

150 200 250 Number of res pondents (%) 300 350 Limitations of the Study Low response rate (29.2%) respondents may be a sub-group who are more concerned about the pharmacy profession Mail questionnaire low response rate but reaches a wider area with minimum resources No official list of community pharmacists in Msia Conclusions CPD points achieved by the respondents were much lower than the required 30 points per year. Mandatory CPD in 2 years time should only be

considered if more CPD activities are defined and made available. Activities that can be incorporated into the working routine of CPs are preferred. Self-study packages can also be developed to reach CPs outside the major cities. Acknowledgements Special thanks to Ms Fung Lee Jean, Ms Jennifer Tan, Ms Yip Sook Ying and Ms Wong Hooi Fen for their feedback on the questionnaire. Many thanks to the Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society for all the assistance rendered. Our greatest appreciation to ALL the Community Pharmacists who have spent their valuable time to fill the questionnaire.

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