Immune Response - Socorro Independent School District

Immune Response - Socorro Independent School District

Immune Response Adaptive Immune Response Adaptive Immune Adaptive Immune Response Humoral Immunity B cells 2 Cellular Immunity T cells Adaptive or Acquired Immune Response

3 Protects against infectious agents and abnormal body cells Amplifies the inflammatory response Activates complement Adaptive Defenses Adaptive immune response

Two separate overlapping arms 1. 2. 4 Is systemic Is specific Has memory Humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity Acquired or Adaptive Immune Response

There are two major branches of the adaptive immune response Humoral 5 Antibody- mediated immune response Mediated by Blymphocytes Cellular

Cell-mediated immune response Involves the production of cytotoxic Tlymphocytes, activated macrophages, activated NK cells, and cytokines in response to an antigen Antigens

Substances that can mobilize the adaptive defenses and provoke an immune response Most are large, complex molecules not normally found in the body (nonself) Acquired or Adaptive Immune Response During adaptive immunity: 7

Bone marrow & thymus (primary lymphoid tissues) produce B cells and T cells, respectively Immature T cells migrate to thymus and become competent T cells B cells and T cells recirculate through spleen and lymph nodes (secondary lymphoid tissues) Antigen (Ag) presenting cells (APC) pick up antigen and migrate to secondary lymphoid tissues & interact with T cells and B cells Antigenic Determinants Certain parts of an entire antigen that are immunogenic Antibodies and lymphocyte receptors bind to them

Antigenic Determinants Most naturally occurring antigens have numerous antigenic determinants that Mobilize several different lymphocyte populations Form different kinds of antibodies against it Large, chemically simple molecules (e.g., plastics) have little or no immunogenicity Examples

Simple molecules Stainless steel plastics Examples 11 Cells of the Adaptive Immune System Two types of lymphocytes

B lymphocytes (B cells)humoral immunity T lymphocytes (T cells)cell-mediated immunity Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) Do not respond to specific antigens Play essential auxiliary roles in immunity Antigen Processing and Presentation In order to generate adaptive immunity, as well as long lasting memory, Ag should be recognized by T and B cells Lymphocytes make up to a billion different types of antigen receptors

Memory usually improves upon repeated exposure to a given infection 13 Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs) Engulf antigens Present fragments of antigens to be recognized by T cells Major types

Dendritic cells in connective tissues and epidermis Macrophages in connective tissues and lymphoid organs B cells Differences in Innate and Adaptive Immunity The innate and adaptive immune responses both function to protect against invading organisms, but they differ in a number of ways (1) The innate immune system is constitutively present and reacts

immediately to infection. The adaptive immune response to an invading organism takes some time to develop (2) The innate immune system is not specific in its response and reacts equally well to a variety of organisms, whereas the adaptive immune system is antigen-specific and reacts only with the organism that induced the response (3) The adaptive immune system exhibits immunological memory. It "remembers" that it has encountered an invading organism (antigen) and reacts more rapidly on subsequent exposure to the same organism. The innate immune system does not possess a memory. 15 Acquired Immunity

Type of Immunity Active Immunity Passive Immunity 16 How acquired by Host Occurs when an individual is exposed to an infectious agent or one of its products (antigens) As a result of acquisition of antibodies which have been produced by another animal (by active means) or derived from cells grown in tissue

culture Examples Active Natural Immunity: Antibodies are produced by the host in response to the infectious agent itself (e.g. Recovery from disease) Active Artificial Immunity: Occurs through vaccination with a form of the disease microorganism. It may be dead, attenuated (weakened), or altered so that it will not produce the disease but will cause the body to produce antibodies. Passive Natural Immunity: Transfer of antibodies from a mother to her baby through the

placenta; Transfer of antibodies from mother to infant in milk if nursing. Passive Artificial Immunity: Acquired through inoculation

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Quiz: - University of Washington

    Quiz: - University of Washington

    Quiz #1 (answer) Draw chart[4] and chart[5] for 0 Book 1 that 2 flight 3 with 4 cards 5 Chart[4], word[4]=cards S30: P with. [3,4] S28 scan S31: PP P.
  • Sonnet - Tri-Valley Local School District

    Sonnet - Tri-Valley Local School District

    Poem by Robert Frost (pg. 423) What characteristics of a sonnet does this poem have? What type of sonnet is it? How do you know? Describe the image in lines 1-4. What sense(s) is being triggered by the imagery? ......
  • 9.1 Transport in the xylem of plants - Fillingham

    9.1 Transport in the xylem of plants - Fillingham

    9.1 Transport in the xylem of plants. ... Transpiration. Transpiration is the inevitable consequence of gas exchange in the leaf (U.1) ... The flow of water through the xylem from the roots to the leaf (against gravity) is called the...
  • The Parables Of Jesus - Executable Outlines

    The Parables Of Jesus - Executable Outlines

    Perspectives For The Sower Importance Of Proper Perspectives... Wrong Perspectives negative attitude failure Right Perspectives positive attitude success Are we guilty of "stinkin thinkin"? Let's Read The Parable Of The Sower...
  • Understandings of nation & Expressions of nationalism

    Understandings of nation & Expressions of nationalism

    What are expressions of nationalism? Nationalism: the collective, shared sense of belonging of people who identify themselves as a nation. When individuals or groups of people communicate or act on this shared sense of belonging, these communications and actions are
  • 3 Types of Proofs - Harding Charter Preparatory High School

    3 Types of Proofs - Harding Charter Preparatory High School

    COMPARING TYPES OF PROOFS TYPES OF PROOFS Three types of proofs: TWO-COLUMN PROOF is the most formal type. Lists numbered statements in the left column and the reason for each statement in the right column. PARAGRAPH PROOF describes the logical...
  • Folie 1 - ekladata.com

    Folie 1 - ekladata.com

    Elles ont troqué, sans qu'on le leur impose, leurs grandes robes noires et leurs voiles dans le cas des femmes pour des habits civils sans pour autant renier leur foi et sans cesser de prier. Plusieurs de ces personnes sont...
  • Introduction to Connectivity: resting-state and PPI

    Introduction to Connectivity: resting-state and PPI

    Types of Connectivity. Structural/Anatomical Connectivity: physical presence of axonal projections from one brain area to another, axon bundles detected e.g. by DTI, tract-tracing. Functional. Connectivity: statistical dependency . among remote neurophysiological events. Expressed as temporal correlation of activity across different...