iGCSE chemistry Section 2 lesson 1

iGCSE chemistry Section 2 lesson 1

IGCSE CHEMISTRY SECTION 2 LESSON 1 Content The iGCSE Chemistry course Section 1 Principles of Chemistry Section 2 Chemistry of the Elements

Section 3 Organic Chemistry Section 4 Physical Chemistry Section 5 Chemistry in Society Content Section 2 Chemistry of the Elements

a) The Periodic Table b) Group 1 Elements c) Group 7 Elements d) Oxygen and Oxides e) Hydrogen and Water f) Reactivity Series g) Tests for ions and gases Content Lesson 1

a)The Periodic Table b) Group 1 elements a) The Periodic Table 2.1 understand the terms group and period 2.2 recall the positions of metals and non-metals in the Periodic Table 2.3 explain the classification of elements as metals or nonmetals on the basis of their electrical conductivity and

the acid-base character of their oxides 2.4 understand why elements in the same group of the Periodic Table have similar chemical properties 2.5 understand that the noble gases (Group 0) are a family of inert gases and explain their lack of reactivity in terms of their electronic configurations. b) Group 1 elements lithium, sodium and potassium 2.6 describe the reactions of these elements with water and understand that the reactions provide a basis for their

recognition as a family of elements 2.7 describe the relative reactivities of the elements in Group 1 2.8 explain the relative reactivities of the elements in Group 1 in terms of distance between the outer electrons and the nucleus. The Periodic Table The Periodic Table Groups

The Periodic Table Groups 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (0) The Periodic Table Periods The Periodic Table

Periods 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The Periodic Table Alkali metals Noble gases Alkaline Earth metals Transition metals

Halogens The Periodic Table Sn = tin Group 4 Period 5 The Periodic Table Non-metals Metals The Periodic Table

The chemical elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number The Periodic Table Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outermost shell. This is the same as the group number

The Periodic Table Elements in the same period have the same number of shells. This is the same as the period number Metals and non-metals Metals and non-metals More than of the elements in the Periodic Table are

metals Metals and non-metals More than of the elements in the Periodic Table are metals So what defines a metal?

Metals and non-metals Metals, such as gold, are good electrical conductors. This is because they have a giant structure in which electrons in the highest energy level are free to move through the entire structure. Metals and non-metals

Metals, such as gold, are good electrical conductors. This is because they have a giant structure in which electrons in the highest energy level are free to move through the entire structure. Non-metals, such as sulphur, are very poor conductors of electricity,

or do not conduct at all. Metals and non-metals Both metals and non-metals form oxides. For example: copper oxide CuO

sulphur dioxide SO2 Metals and non-metals Both metals and non-metals form oxides. For example: copper oxide CuO

sulphur dioxide SO2 Oxides of metallic elements are bases, those which dissolve in water form alkalis. Metals and non-metals Both metals and non-metals form oxides. For example: copper oxide

CuO sulphur dioxide SO2 Oxides of metallic elements are bases, those which dissolve in water form alkalis. Oxides of non-metallic elements tend Metals and non-metals Metallic

elements Non-metallic elements Combine with oxygen to form oxides Oxides of metallic elements are solids Oxides of

metallic elements are all bases Bases soluble in water are called alkalis Some bases are insoluble Many nonmetallic oxides

are gases, some are liquids and some solids Most dissolve in water to form acids Some are insoluble and neutral

Metals and non-metals Non-metal oxides as acids: Sulphur dioxide + Water Sulphurous acid SO2 + H2O H2SO3 Metals and non-metals Metal oxides as bases: Base + Acid Salt + Water

eg. CuO + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O Groups and chemical properties The Group Number tells you how many electrons there are in the outer shell (orbit) of an element. For example, oxygen is in Group 6, so has 6 electrons in its outermost shell (2:6)

The Period Number tells you how many shells (orbits) there are around the nucleus. For example, Calcium is in Period 4, so will have 4 shells around the nucleus

The Period Number tells you how many shells (orbits) there are around the nucleus. For example, Calcium is in Period 4, so will have 4 shells around the nucleus

Groups and chemical properties why do elements in the same group of the Periodic Table have similar chemical properties Groups and chemical properties why do elements

in the same group of the Periodic Table have similar chemical properties Its all to do with their electronic configuration. Groups and chemical properties why do elements

in the same group of the Periodic Table have similar chemical properties Its all to do with their electronic configuration. In order to be stable, atoms need a full outer shell of electrons

Groups and chemical Elementsproperties in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outermost shell Groups and chemical Atomsproperties need to lose or gain

electrons in order to become stable Groups and chemical properties Metals lose their outer electron or electrons when they react, and nonmetals gain Groups and chemical The fewer properties

electrons that need to be lost or gained, the more reactive the element Groups and chemical The fewer properties electrons that need to be lost or gained, the more reactive the element Groups and chemical

properties Non-metals Groups and chemical properties Group 1 elements lose one electron to become stable Groups and chemical properties

Group 1 elements lose one electron to become stable Group 2 elements lose two electrons to become stable Groups and chemical properties Group 1 elements lose one electron to become

stable Group 2 elements lose two electrons to become stable Group 3 elements lose three electrons to become stable Groups and chemical properties Group 5 elements gain three electrons to become

stable Group 6 elements gain two electrons to become stable Group 7 elements gain one electron to become stable Groups and chemical The fewer properties electrons that need to be lost or gained, the more reactive the element

Groups and chemical properties Group 1 are the Group 7 are the most reactive metals most reactive non-metals

Groups and chemical properties What about the elements in Group 8 (0) ? Why are they so unreactive? Groups and chemical properties What about the elements in 2

2:8 2:8:8 Group 8 (0) ? Why are they so unreactive? Look at their electron configurations can you see why they dont react? Groups and chemical properties

What about the elements in 2 Group 8 (0) ? Why are they so unreactive? 2:8 2:8:8 Look at their electron configurations can you

see why they dont react? They already have full outer shells of electrons, so they dont need to lose or gain any more. This is why they are called the inert gases. They dont usually react. (They are also know as the rare or noble gases) Content

Lesson 1 a)The Periodic Table b) Group 1 elements a) The Periodic Table 2.1 understand the terms group and period 2.2 recall the positions of metals and non-metals in the

Periodic Table 2.3 explain the classification of elements as metals or nonmetals on the basis of their electrical conductivity and the acid-base character of their oxides 2.4 understand why elements in the same group of the Periodic Table have similar chemical properties 2.5 understand that the noble gases (Group 0) are a family of inert gases and explain their lack of reactivity in terms of their electronic configurations. b) Group 1 elements lithium, sodium and potassium

2.6 describe the reactions of these elements with water and understand that the reactions provide a basis for their recognition as a family of elements 2.7 describe the relative reactivities of the elements in Group 1 2.8 explain the relative reactivities of the elements in Group 1 in terms of distance between the outer electrons and the nucleus. Group 1 The Alkali Metals Group 1 The Alkali Metals

Alkali metals have a low density. The first three are less dense than water, and as a consequence they float. Group 1 The Alkali Metals Alkali metals have a low density. The first three are less dense than water, and as a consequence they float. Melting points and boiling

points decrease as we go down the group Group 1 The Alkali Metals Alkali metals have a low density. The first three are less dense than water, and as a consequence they float. Melting points and boiling points decrease as we go down the group

Reactivity increases as we go down the group Group 1 The Alkali Metals Alkali metals have a low density. The first three are less dense than water, and as a consequence they float. All alkali metals react

with nonmetals to form ionic compounds. Melting points and boiling points decrease as we go down the group Reactivity increases as we go down the group Group 1 The Alkali Metals

Alkali metals have a low density. The first three are less dense than water, and as a consequence they float. They all lose one electron to form a metal ion with the charge +1

Melting points and boiling points decrease as we go down the group Reactivity increases as we go down the group Group 1 The Alkali Metals Alkali metals have a low density. The first three are less dense than water, and as a consequence they float.

They all lose one electron to form a metal ion with the charge +1 Melting points and boiling points decrease as we go down the group Reactivity increases as we go

down the group Ionic compounds are white solids which form colourless solutions Group 1 The Alkali Metals Reaction with water The alkali metals react with water to produce soluble hydroxides (alkalis) and hydrogen. eg. Potassium + Water Potassium + Hydrogen

hydroxide 2K(s) + 2H2O(l) 2KOH(aq) + H2(g) Group 1 The Alkali Metals Reaction with water The alkali metals react with water to produce soluble hydroxides (alkalis) and hydrogen.

eg. Potassium + Water Potassium + Hydrogen hydroxide 2K(s) 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) 2KOH(aq) + H2(g) + 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)

Group 1 The Alkali Metals Reaction with water Going down the group, the alkali metals become more reactive, and react more vigorously with water. They float, may melt and the hydrogen gas produced may ignite Lithium reacts gently, sodium more violently, and potassium so violently that it melts and bursts into flames.

Group 1 The Alkali Metals Reaction with water Group 1 The Alkali Metals Why does the reactivity increase going down the group? Group 1 The Alkali Metals Why does the

reactivity increase going down the group? Its all to do with the number of shells around the nucleus! Group 1 The Alkali Metals Why does the reactivity increase

going down the group? 2:1 2:8:1 2:8:8:1 Its all to do with the number of shells around the nucleus!

Going down the group the atomic radius gets bigger due to extra full shells of electrons. The outer electron is further from the nucleus and so less strongly held. Group 1 The Alkali Metals

Why does the reactivity increase going down the group? 2:1 2:8:1 2:8:8:1 Its all to do with the

number of shells around the nucleus! This means that the outer electron is more easily lost, the +1 ion is more easily formed, and so the elements are more reactive going down the group.

End of Section 2 Lesson 1 In this lesson we have covered: The Periodic Table Group 1 The Alkali Metals

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