Hydroforming a Steel Tube Design Optimization

Hydroforming a Steel Tube Design Optimization

Hydro-Forming a Steel Tube Finite Element Model Design Greg Wilmes Finite Element Method MIE 605 Spring 2003 Hydro-Forming of a Steel Tube Background Model Creation Model Limitations Contact elements Load stepping

Findings Future Work Conclusion Background Hydro-Forming is a manufacturing process which forms complex shapes using uncompressible liquids. Sheet Hydro-Forming Hoods Roofs Tubular HydroForming

Engine chassis Frame Rails Exhaust Systems Primer: Tube Hydroforming a b c

d e f Faxial Faxial P Derived from: Siempelkamp Pressen Systeme GmbH & Co. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts

Materials Systems Laboratory Concerns During Hydroforming Process Focus of this project Create a Finite Element Model to simulate the hydro-forming process Use the model to create a 3x3 square tube from a 3 round tube. Real World Example

3-D parts Non-linear material properties Material variations Complicated geometry with bends and depressions Friction Geometry Simplifications 2-Dimensional

Symmetric Deformation from Circle to Square Rigid Target Surface Constant Thickness 1.6mm re u s s e r P

Governing Equation Hoop Stress P r y t t P r Material Property

Simplifications Isotropic Expansion Plastic Deformation of Low Carbon Steel 350 Experimental tensile test data 20 points 330 Stress (MPa) Non-Linear

340 320 310 300 290 280 270 Coloumb Friction Effects 260 250 0

0.05 0.1 Strain No strain rate effects 0.15 0.2 Model Creation Element Type Plane 42

4 noded 2-Dimensional Non-Linear Options Plane Stress Option Local Coordinate System Extra Shape Functions Meshing Hydro-Form Die Rigid Target No mesh allowed

Hydro-Form Blank Mapped Mesh Angled Thickness split Contact Elements Allows modeling of contact between two objects Used Contact Wizard Rigid Target Deformable Contact No Separation (sliding) option

Coloumb Friction (0.27) Solution Control Options Static Quasi-Static Evaluation Non-Linear Solution Stepped Loading Auto Time Steps Constraints Target Die

Fully constrained Cannot Move Contact Blank Symmetrically Constrained Load Steps Using a simple do loop Slowly increase internal pressure 380 MPa Used second do loop Maintain pressure for a period of time

Repeated for different meshing configurations Findings Maximum Displacement 12.6 Displacement (mm) 12.5 12.4 12.3

12.2 12.1 12 11.9 11.8 11.7 0 200

400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

Elements Difference between 90 elements and 1400 elements was 0.032mm 0.3% difference Close to general manufacturing machining tolerances Continued Work Refine Finite Element simulation to match real world parts 3-Dimentions Different materials Different deformation shapes

Stress State analysis Conclusion and Thoughts The Finite Element Method and Ansys seem to be appropriate for analyzing this problem Model seemed as respond well with about 100 elements

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