Human Anatomy and Physiology - ScienceGeek.net

Human Anatomy and Physiology - ScienceGeek.net

The Human Nervous System Neuron- A Nerve Cell Cell Cell body body Contains Contains the the nucleus nucleus and and other other organelles organelles Dendrites Dendrites Receive Receive stimuli stimuli

Conduct Conduct impulses impulses toward toward the the cell cell body body Axon Axon Carries Carries impulses impulses away away from from the the cell cell body body Axon Structure Myelin Myelin sheath

sheath Insulating Insulating coat coat of of plasma plasma membranes membranes Sections Sections of of sheath sheath are are called called Schwann Schwann Cells Cells Unmyelinated Unmyelinated axons axons carry carry impulses impulses much much slower

slower than than myelinated myelinated axons axons Nodes Nodes of of Ranvier Ranvier Bare Bare axonal axonal membrane membrane between between Schwann Schwann cells cells The Synapse Synapse Synapse The The gap gap between between nerve

nerve cells cells Neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter Chemicals Chemicals that that carry carry nerve nerve signals signals across across the the synapse synapse Reflex Arc The The reflex reflex arc arc responds responds to to a a stimulus stimulus without

without the the immediate immediate involvement involvement of of the the brain brain Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord Cerebrum Directs Directs voluntary voluntary movement movement Sensory Sensory processing processing

Language Language and and communication communication Learning Learning and and memory memory Cerebellum Regulates Regulates sense sense of of balance balance Coordinates Coordinates voluntary voluntary muscle muscle movement movement Medulla

Oblongata Breathing Breathing Heart Heart rate rate Blood Blood pressure pressure Swallowing Swallowing and and digestion digestion Periphera l Nervous System (in blue) Peripheral Nervous System Sensory Sensory Division

Division Bring Bring information information to to the the CNS CNS Motor Motor Division Division Carries Carries signals signals away away from from the the CNS CNS Somatic Somatic (voluntary) (voluntary) nervous nervous system system controls controls skeletal skeletal

muscle muscle action action Autonomic Autonomic nervous nervous system system (involuntary) (involuntary) controls controls organ organ systems systems and and smooth smooth muscle muscle Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Sympathetic Stress Stress responses responses (Fight (Fight or or Flight)

Flight) Pupils Pupils dilate dilate Mouth Mouth dries dries up up (saliva (saliva decreases) decreases) Heart Heart rate rate increases increases Blood Blood flow flow to to skeletal skeletal muscle muscle increases increases Parasympathetic Parasympathetic Relaxation

Relaxation response response Heart Heart rate rate slows slows Pupils Pupils constrict constrict Stimulates Stimulates salivation salivation Digestive Digestive processes processes stimulated stimulated

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