Sector Model Hoyt Background Research conducted by economist Homer Hyot (1895-1984) in 1939 Studied 64 widely distributed American cities Publication: The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighbourhoods in American Cities. Homer Hoyts sector model of 30 US cities
Why did he put forward another model? He rejected the idea of concentric zones. He suggested that residential areas took the form of a series of sectors. Sector is a section of an urban area in the shape of a wedge, beginning at the edge of the CBD and gradually widening to the periphery. Significance ecological factors + economic rent concept to
explain the land use pattern stress on the role of transport routes in affecting the spatial arrangement of the city. both the distance and direction of growth from the city centre are considered. Brings location of industrial and environmental amenity values as determinants in residential location
Example: sectors of high class residential areas tend to grow towards higher grounds, sites with better view, more open space, the homes of influential leaders within the community and existing outlying, smaller settlements. wedge like/ sector arrangement following the axial arrangement of the transport lines diverging from the city centre. locate outside the CBD due to land costs and along transport routes to
minimize costs of transportation. CBD remains a circular form in the centre. found near to railways, bordering the manufacturing / warehousing sectors (the least desirable land). occupied intermediate positions. developed along main transport routes for ease of commuting into the CBD
located away from areas of heavy polluting industry. found on high grounds (good view), waterfronts not used by industries and homes of community leaders. How are sectors developed? Differences in accessibility from outlying districts to the city centre High-class housing estates were built along transport
routes, e.g. suburban railway line / highway attract accretionary growth of similar residential housing, thus extending the zone out as a sector (ecological factor). A high rent residential district in one sector of the city will migrate outwards by the addition of new belts of housing along its outer arc.
Similar land uses attracted other similar land uses, concentrating a function in a particular area and repelling others. This attract and repel process led to sector development. How are sectors developed? The growth of the city depends on the direction of the transport route (directional factor) Hoyt suggested high-rent sector would expand according to four factors Moves from its point of origin near the CBD, along
established routes of travel, toward another nucleus of high-rent buildings Will progress toward high ground or along waterfronts, when these areas are not used for industry Will move along the route of fastest transportation Will move toward open space Sector model As high-rent sectors develop, areas between them are filled in Middle-rent areas move directly next to them,
drawing on their prestige Low-rent areas fill remaining areas Moving away from major routes of travel, rents go from high to low There are distinct patterns in todays cities that echo Hoyts model He had the advantage of writing later than
Burgess in the age of the automobile Sector model Today, major transportation arteries are generally freeways Surrounding areas are often low-rent districts Contrary to Hoyts theory Freeways were imposed on existing urban pattern Often built through low-rent areas where land was cheaper and political opposition was less
Growth of low-density high-income residential areas in NE NT Palm Springs Fairview Park Rolling Hills / Scenic Heights / Vineyards Growth of middleincome residential belt in West Kowloon
Yuen Long Describe the spatial distribution of various residential land uses in Yuen Long. Account for their distribution pattern. Take account of the following factors: transport network, attract-and-repel of social groups, land-rent
mechanism, difference in relief, historical inertia, government influence. Criticisms He based his model on housing and neglected other land uses. Areas of low cost housing do occur beside main roads near to the boundaries of most cities. It is too concerned with residential land use and has not paid enough attention to the existence of residential and industrial suburbs in cities.
It has paid little attention to the height of buildings and the variation of land use with height.
CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN ALENTEJO. Alentejo. is a region that is deeply based in its culture and traditional practices, which in many cases are leading to what we today designate as circular economy practices
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