How to Use Praat for Acoustic Analysis - WordPress.com
About How to Use Praat for Acoustic Analysis Created by Amanda Shultz Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Links Main Target
Audience Objectives Orientatio n Help About this program Mai n Pre v Nex t
Target Audience This individualized instruction in PowerPoint was created for graduate students and instructors with a background in phonology and phonetics who want to learn more about acoustic analysis. Mai n Sec Pre v Nex t Objectives After using this instructional tool, you will:
Have a better understanding of what acoustics is and how it relates to phonology and phonetics Know how to use the basic functions of Praat Know how to measure voice onset time (VOT) Mai n Sec Pre v Nex t Orientation This instructional tool may best be used with two computer monitors, one to view PowerPoint and the other to download the necessary items and use Praat.
Note that there are links to websites. Once you click on a website link, a window will appear with the website. You will need to click on the PowerPoint screen again to return to this instructional tool. There are three sections to this instructional tool: Section 1: Background Information Section 2: Using Praat Section 3: Measuring Voice Onset Time (VOT) You can access the three sections from the main menu. To access the main menu from any page, click the Main button in the lower left corner. Each section has its own page. To access the section page of the section you are currently viewing, click the Sec button in the lower left corner. Each page has navigation buttons. Click the Prev button to view the previous page. Click the Next button to view the next page in the progression of this instructional tool.
Click the Back button to view the last page you saw. Mai n Sec Pre v Nex t HELP Mai n Sec
Need Help? If you are experiencing problems with this instructional tool, feel free to email Amanda at [email protected] If you feel like you need more background information, check out the links page here. You can also access a helpful Praat beginners guide here. For technical Praat questions, you can search the Praat manual by clicking the Help button, which is located in the object window as shown in the screen shot below. Pre v Nex t
Main What you should know Praat VOT Helpful Links Section 1: Background Information Mai n Pre
v Nex t What you should know Since this instructional tool is geared to those who already have an understanding of phonetics and phonology, you should be familiar with: Mai n
The International Phonetic Alphabet The difference between phonetics and Sec phonology Pre v Nex t Praat To put it simply, acoustics is the study of waves. To people interested in speech, acoustics is the study of the sound waves created by human speech. For the purposes of this instructional tool, Praat is an acoustic analysis computer program, which is free off the
internet. You can use Praat to take acoustic measurements (e.g., pitch of a sound wave) from audio files of speech and to make markings within a text file to label and keep track of the contents of the audio file. Praat was designed by Paul Boersma and David Weenick. You can access their website for Praat here. Mai n Sec Pre v Nex t Voice Onset Time
Definitions needed to understand voice onset time (VOT): Phonation (Voicing)vibration of the vocal folds which produces a periodic waveform Sounda vibration that produces a periodic wave form (phonation/voicing creates a sound) Noisea vibration that lacks periodicity (aspiration creates noise) Bursta pressure impulse that can be seen in the waveform after the release of a stop/plosive Putting it all together: VOTthe time that elapses between the burst of a plosive and the onset of phonation. We will focus on the VOT of the plosives /b/ and /p/. PLOSIVES Mai n
Sec Pre v Nex t Voice Onset Time Voiced Stops: If the onset of phonation occurs first and the burst occurs second, then the VOT will have a negative value or if the phonation occurs at the burst then VOT would be 0 milliseconds (ms). During the time between the onset of phonation and the burst, there should be some periodicity (sound). Voiced Stops: VOT 0 E.g., Spanish /b/
Voiceless Stops: If the burst occurs first and the onset of phonation occurs second, then the VOT will have a positive value. During the time between the burst and the onset of phonation, there may be some noise from aspiration, but there should not be any periodicity (sound). Short Lag/Unaspirated Stops: 0 ms < VOT < 30 ms E.g., Spanish /p/ Long Lag/Aspirated Stops: VOT > 30 ms Mai n Sec E.g., English /p/ Pre v
Nex t Voice Onset Time This diagram represents a timeline in which the mouth closes (blockage) and releases. The zigzag represents the timing of the voicing. Mai n Sec Pre
v Nex t Main Instruction s Video 1 Video 2 Assessme nt Section 2: Using Praat Mai
n Pre v Nex t Instructions: Getting Started with Praat 1) Go to Praats website and download the program on your computer. 2) Go to this website and download the sound file labeled Plosive1. 3) Save Plosive1 to your computer in a location that you will remember. 4) Open Praat. The download should have created a shortcut on your desktop. 5) Close the Praat Picture window; we will not be using this.
6) In the Praat Objects window, click Read. Then click Read from file. 7) Find Plosive1 in the place where you just saved it. Click on Plosive1 in the window and then click Open. Mai n Sec Pre v Nex t Instructions: Getting Started with Praat 8) 1. Sound Plosive1 will appear in the Objects list as the first item. 9) Click the Annotate button located to the right of the Objects list. Then
click To TextGrid 10)A window entitled, Sound: To TextGrid will appear. Just click OK. (We will save naming tiers for another time.) 11)2. TextGrid Plosive1 will appear in the Objects list as the second item. 12)Highlight both the sound file and the TextGrid within the objects window. (Do this by holding shift while clicking or click and then drag your mouse.) 13)Click the Edit button located to the right of the Objects list. 14)Now you will see a new window appear. This shows the waveform and spectrogram of the sound file as well as the TextGrid which, right now, includes three tiers, labeled 1, 2, and 3 along the left side of this window. Congratulations, you have now officially opened a sound file/TextGrid in Praat! Mai n Sec See the Beginning Praat Video on the next page for a demonstration of these
instructions. Pre v Nex t Video 1 Beginning Praat Video Mai n Sec Click the VIDEO button above to see a demonstration
of the previous set of instructions for using Praat. Pre v Nex t Video 2 Praat Functions Video Mai n Sec Click the VIDEO button
above to see a demonstration of some of the basic functions in Praat. Pre v Nex t Click to begin the activity! Assessment: Using Praat Mai n Sec Pre
v Main Instruction s Diagram Video Assessme nt Section 3: Measuring Voice Onset Time Mai n
Pre v Nex t Instructions: Measuring Voice Onset Time 1) Find the word that contains the initial stop consonant that you want to measure. 2) Zoom in on the beginning of the word to find the burst of the stop. Remember that the burst will make an impulse in the wave at the beginning of the word. 3) Place a boundary where the pulse begins to move from the dotted blue (zero) line.
4) Zoom out to see where the periodicity of voicing begins. 5) Zoom back in to see exactly where the periodicity does begin. Mai n Sec Pre v Nex t Instructions 6) If you are not sure, you can listen to a selection of the speech that you think should be between the burst and the onset of voicing. Listening with a good pair of headphones is a good
way to double check your work. If VOT is positive, then the onset of voicing should be noise, while the following vowel should be a periodic sound. If VOT is negative, then you have a waveform before the burst. 7) Place a boundary at the onset of voicing. 8) Click on the space between the two boundary lines and record the duration. This is the VOT. Remember: Mai n If the burst comes before the onset of voicing, then VOT is positive. If the burst comes after the onset of voicing, then VOT is negative.
This means that you would have to put a negative sign in front of the duration that Praat calculated between the onset of voicing and the burst. (There is no reason for Praat to record a negative duration.) Sec Pre v Nex t Diagram Praat Screen Shot The above screen shot of Praat has arrows that point to important features. Mai n
Sec Pre v Nex t Video VOT Video Click the VIDEO button above to see a demonstration of how to measure VOT in Praat. Mai n
Sec Pre v Nex t Click to begin the quiz! Assessment: Measuring VOT Mai n Sec Pre v
Praat Website Sample Sounds Beginning Praat Video Beginners Guide to Praat Wikipedia: Acoustics Wikipedia: VOT
Praat Functions Video How to read a spectrogra m Praat VOT Video Mystery Spectrogra m Helpful Links Mai n
Bac k If I wanted to upload a sound file into Praat, what would I click first? Activity Section 2: Using Praat Click on the picture in response to the question. Correc t! Next Question If I wanted to view just the part highlighted in
pink, what would I click? Activity Section 2: Using Praat Click on the picture in response to the question. Correc t! Next Question If I wanted to view the Praat manual, what would I click? Activity Section 2: Using Praat Click on the picture in
response to the question. Correc t! Next Question Click on the part of the screen that shows the duration of the part of the sound that is highlighted. Activity Section 2: Using Praat Click on the picture in response to the question. Correc
t! Mai n You have Sec Nex t 1. Approximately, what is the VOT for the word Bat in the Plosive1 sound file? Quiz Section 3: Measuring VOT
a. b. c. d. 1ms 4 ms 12 ms 51 ms Correc t! Next Question 2. Approximately, what is the VOT for the word Pat in the Plosive1 sound file? Quiz
Section 3: Measuring VOT a. b. c. d. 88 62 54 10 ms ms ms ms Correc
t! Next Question 3. Approximately, what is the VOT for the word Bit in the Plosive1 sound file? Quiz Section 3: Measuring VOT a. b. c. d. 85 72 35
13 ms ms ms ms Correc t! Next Question 4. Approximately, what is the VOT for the word Pit in the Plosive1 sound file? Quiz Section 3: Measuring VOT
a. b. c. d. 89 ms 95 ms 109 ms 125 ms Congrats! You have reached the end of this instructional tool. Click to see helpful links Try again
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