How to go from reading to reading to reading to LEARN
How to go from reading to reading to reading to LEARN By Tara Light Cobb County Teacher at Shallowford Falls and Tritt Elementary Reading is a PUZZLE!! How do you put your puzzle together? When is a student ready to transition to reading to learn? Children should be learning to read and reading to learn simultaneously and continuously from preschool through middle school and even beyond that. Comprehension is a critical piece of the learning process and cannot be left behind to focus on sight words and phonics. It is clear that the expectations change dramatically in the 4th grade. Students are now expected to apply the skills learned earlier to the new more challenging content-area. What we need to realize is that When is an ESOL student ready to transition to reading to learn? ESOL students are different depending on their language acquisition in their home language. ESOL student that only speaks home language and cant read to write in home language. ESOL student that has basic phonemic awareness and phonic skills in both languages. ESOL student that can read and write on grade level in home language and has
phonemic awareness in English. The main thing that an ESOL student needs in order to be successful in reading comprehension is background knowledge and academic vocabulary in English. When and why is the timeframe different for ESOL students? Regular Student A student is ready to start transitioning from just reading to reading to learn when they have phonemic awareness and basic phonics. They can also read with fluency. The main thing is that they have a basic understanding of common vocabulary and are working on academic vocabulary. ESOL Student An ESOL student is different based on their reading knowledge and comprehension in their home language. It is more of an if then: Reading Reading skills in home language Reading skills in both/multiple languages Reading skills in English only- Vocabulary Academic vocabulary in home language Academic vocabulary in both/multiple languages Academic vocabulary in English only What are the different reading categories in Reading to LEARN? Inference Central Idea and Key Details Events and Ideas Language Usage Text Structure Point of View or Purpose Analysis Arguments Comparison of Multiple Texts How video slips can help to introduce new topics?
Inference 3 kinds of inferences 1 Coherence inferences- when you infer something from the other information in the text 2 Elaborative inferences- when you infer using prior knowledge to connect ideas 3 Global inferences- when you comprehend overarching themes Inference Level 3 Reread the sentence that starts with _ What does the sentence say explicitly? What can you infer from it? How does inference connect the following 2 sentences _ and _? In the ____ sentence /paragraph, the author uses the word _ What does the word _ refer to? How do you know? What does the author tell you explicitly in the __ paragraph? What background knowledge did you use to make an inference about the information? What do you infer from the characters actions in the ___ paragraph? How do you know?
Level 4 Level 5 What inference does the author want you Reread the ___ paragraph. List the facts What word/phrase did the author use to How does the authors use of ___ in the to make from the sentence/paragraph? Support your answer with evidence from the text. describe ____? What does it say explicitly? In the sentence, _ what does the word _ refer to? Why is it important to know this in order to understand the sentence? What can you infer from the text structure? How is your inference supported by evidence from the text? that are explicitly stated in the text. Write at least one inference that you made while reading the paragraph. text structure affect what you infer from the text? Support your answer with evidence from the text. What is the reader expected to infer from the figurative language in the paragraph? Justify your answer with specific examples from the text. What can you infer about _____ by the How does the narrator feel in the What do you infer from the characters How does the ___ sentence help you
end of the _____ paragraph? How do you know? action in the ______ paragraph? How do you know? What is the purpose of the sentence __ ? How does this sentence help you make inferences about ____? passage? How do you know? Include textual evidence to support your answer. activate your personal knowledge about the topic? Why is this important in the text? What is the purpose of the sentence: _? How does this sentence help you make inference s about the ___? Central Idea and Key Details Students needs to have a general understanding of information or ideas in a text in order to find the overarching message in the text. The first step is getting students to summarize or retell text by remembering specific details and understanding how the details relate. Then the student needs to understand the purpose of the text by finding the main idea or theme of the text. Finally students learn to identify how ideas develop throughout the text using supporting details and how ideas develop and change through the text. Central Ideas and Key Details Level 4 Level 3
Retell the story using your own words. Refer back to the text to validate the details included in your retelling of the story. What is the main idea of the story? What details support your idea? What is the moral of the story? How do you know? What are the key details of the plot of the story? Describe some of the key details about the characters in the story. How do these details affect your overall understanding of the characters? What happens in the story? What are the important details? Include specific examples from the text in your answer. What is the main idea of each paragraph on page_? How do these ideas come together to form a central message? Support you answer with specific information from the text. How does the author communicate the main idea of the text? Include specific examples from the text to support your answer.
Level 5 What are the key details in the paragraph? What is the central idea that these details support? Summarize the text. What is the central topic? What are the key details that support the topic in the text? What is the central idea of the text? How does the author develop this idea over the course of the text? How does the author develop the theme of the story through the plot? Include specific details from the text? What are some of the multiple themes in the story? How are these themes interwoven throughout the text? Justify your answer with specific details from the text? List one key detail from each paragraph in the text. How do these details come together to Events and Ideas Students start by identifying the WHO, WHAT and WHERE of a text from there they need to understand how things develop through the text. Students need a thorough understanding of the basic elements to comprehend broader themes and complex central ideas embedded in the text.
It is important that students go beyond the literal understanding of the text and become an interactive reader. The main thing students need to learn is how to analyze the text and comprehend the contents of the text. In order to do this students need to refer to the details and information presented within the text. Events and Ideas Level 3 What emotions does the character experience in the text? How do you know? What is the relationship between __ and __? Refer back to the text for specific examples to support your answer. What role does the setting play in the story? Include examples from the text to support your answer. How does the time at which the text takes place play a role in the story? Support your answer with the examples from the text. How do the events in chapter__ relate to those in chapter __? Describe how the evens in the text build on each other. Make sure to include specific examples from the text in your answer. What is the main event on page_? What is the role of this event in the
Level 4 What is the characters motivation in the paragraph? What words or phrases in the text tell you this? How does the character change during the story? Support your answer with specific examples from the text. How does the setting affect the overall tone of the text? Why is this important? Use examples from the text to demonstrate the relationship between setting and tone. How does the setting affect the life of ______? How do you know? Retell the main events of the story. How do these events relate to the overall message of the text? What event comes before__? Why is this significant? What event comes after __? Describe the role of this sequence in the text. Level 5 Compare 2 characters. How are these two characters alike and different? Refer back to the text for evidence to justify your answer. What words does the author use to describe the character? What can you infer about the character from these words? How would the story change if it occurred in a different location? Provide evidence from the text to illustrate your answer. How is the sequence of events in the text affected by the setting? What is the cause and effect
discussed in the text? How do the series of events at the beginning of the story contribute to the overall tone of the text? Support your answer with specific examples from the text. Language Usage Students need to learn how use the context of words and phrases presented within the text to help with comprehension. Also words in English have multiple meanings and the context helps the reader find the meaning of the words. Authors use language and words in 4 different ways. Technical definitions- meaning of word by using context clues Connotation-an idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary meaning. Figurative language-Figures of speech such as metaphors, similes, and allusions go beyond the literal meanings of the words to give readers new insights Tone- the general character or attitude of a place, piece of writing, situation Language Usage Level 3 What does the word ___ mean? Which words in the text show __? Support your answer with evidence from the text. What word does the author use to describe __? How does this word help the reader understand more about __? What does the word/phrase __ make
you think of as it is used in the text? Which words does the author use to appeal to/to make you use your senses? What does the author compare to __ in the text? How does this comparison help the reader understand the text better? What emotions do you feel as you read the text? What words does the author use to create a sense of emotion for the reader? Level 5 Level 4 The word ___ has multiple meanings. Which words in the text helped you figure out the meaning of the word__? What part of speech is the word_? How can you tell from the context of the sentence? Reread the paragraph __. Without looking back at the text, which words do you remember? Why are these words important? Use evidence from the text to support your opinions. Why did the author choose to compare __ to __ in the text? Include specific words and phrases from the text to support your ideas.
Does the author use a formal or casual tone in the text? What specific words or phrases in the text support this? How does the characters dialogue contribute to the tone of the text? Be sure to reference examples of dialogue in your answer. How does the text around the word __ add to your understanding of the word? Use examples from the text to support your answer. What words does the author use to signal transition between ideas in the text? How is this helpful for the reader? Support you answer with specific words and phrases from the text. Did the author use any words/phrases that surprised you? Cite textual evidence to explain why the authors choice of words was or was not surprising to you. What emotions do the characters experience on page __ in the text? What words convey/show these emotions? Cite specific words from the text to support you answer. Is the comparison between _ and __ effective? Why or why not? Refer back to the text for specific examples to support your opinion. What type of figurative language does the author use to describe __? Be sure to include specific examples from the text. What is the authors attitude toward__? How do you think the author feels about __? What specific words in the text make you think this? Text Structure Teaches students how to
bridge literal and inferential meaning by understanding the role of a structure of the text by analyzing the text. Text structure differs between fiction and nonfiction text. Fiction Text focuses on plot structure. Nonfiction Text focuses on purpose of text features. 8 ways to look at a 1. Story Structure 2. Units of Text 3. Types of Literature 4. Comparison and Evaluation 5. Text Features 6. Structure Type 7. Text Units Text Structure Level 3 Does the story text tell a story or give information? How do you know from the details in the text? What is the sequence of events in the story? Why is this important to the overall effect of the story? What structure does the author use to divide text? Provide examples from the text. How does this
structure affect the reader? What type of literature is this text? How does the structure relate to the type of literature? Provide examples from the text. Level 4 How does this book/text differ from a book that gives information? Give examples from the text. How does the text differ from one that tells a story? Refer back to a specific part for an example. When does the author introduce the problem or conflict in the story? How does this timing affect the structure of the story? How does the dividing of text into parts help the reader comprehend/understand the story? Use specific examples to support your answer. Identify some structural elements of the text and give an example. Level 5 What do you notice about the structure of this story? Use specific examples from the text to support your answer. How does the author manipulate time in the story?
What effects does this have for the reader? Support your answer with evidence from the text. How do all the texts individual parts come together to create a cohesive text? Refer back to the text in your answer. How does the structure of this text differ from other types of literature? Give examples from the text to Level 5 Text Structure Level 3 Compare the structure of chapter _ to chapter _. How are the structures the same and different and why? Review the headings used in the passage/chapter. How do these headings relate to the structure of the text? Refer to specific examples in text to support your answer. Level 4 What differences do you see between the structure in _ and _? How do these differences play a role in the meaning of the two texts? Support you answer with details from the text. Why did the author choose to include (text feature)__ in the text? Explain
your answer with examples from the text. What specific information does What is being compared in the What problem is presented in the text? text? How is this reflected in the structure of the text? Use specific examples from the text to support your answer. Reread the __ paragraph on page_. How does the first sentence relate to the last sentence? Examine the words printed in Italics or bold type. Why did the author choose to use the text feature for these words? Include specific words from the text as examples to support your answer. the heading on page _ convey to the reader? What is the solution? Cite the text in your answer. How does the text structure reflect the relationship? How does __ relate to __ in the text? How does the text structure reflect this relationship?
Reread paragraph__ on page __. How does this paragraph fit into the overall Evaluate the effectiveness of the text structure using specific examples from the text. How could you use the index in this book to support your research on ____? What specific features of the text help the reader search for specific information? How do the text features used on page __ relate to the topic of the text? Remember to use specific examples from the text to support your answer. Does the text structure chosen by the author effectively communicate the information? Support you opinion with the evidence from the text. How does the text structure help the reader gather information from the text? Include specific examples from the text in your answer. What is the role of chapter __ in the development of the central Point of View or Purpose Students need to understand the purpose of the text to better comprehend its message and absorb the important information presented. The ability to identify and recognize the importance of point of view is one of the cornerstones of critical thinking. In informational texts, the purpose is pretty much exclusively to inform the reader about a subject. Point of view is a reflection of the opinion an individual from
real life or fiction has. First person point of view involves the use of either of the two pronouns I or we. Second person point of view employs the pronoun you. Third person point of view uses pronouns like he, she, it, they, or a name. Level 5 Point of View or Purpose Level 3 Describe something you learned from the illustration that is not in the text. What is __s point of view in the text? How do you know? How does your point of view differ from that of the narrator/characters in the text? Give examples from the text to illustrate the differences. Does this story use first or third person narration? How do you know? Use examples from the text to support your answer. How does the author use different points of view to create humor/ suspense/ tension in a text? What is the main purpose of the text? Support your answer with evidence from the text. Compare and contrast _s and _s account of __. What are the similarities and differences in focus? Level 4
Who narrates the story at the beginning? Middle? End? Use text examples to show how you know this. How does the author use different viewpoints to enhance the development of the characters in the story? How is your point of view the same or different from the authors? Use evidence from the text to show these similarities and differences. Why did the author chose to use first/ third person perspective in this story? Support your answer with specific details from the text. How does the author use point of view to convey emotion to the reader? What is the question that the author is trying to answer in the text? What specific language does the author use to persuade the reader? How many different narrators are there in the text? Why do you think
the author chose to use multiple narrators? Support you answer with evidence from the text. How do the characters points of view contribute to the conflict and resolution in the story? Justify your answer with the examples from the text. Compare and contrast the difference in point of view between the story of __ and __. Include examples from the texts to support your answer. How does the author use point of view to draw the reader into the story? What are the conflicting viewpoints presented in the text? What does the author want the reader to understand through the text? Provide examples from the Analysis Arguments When you "Analyze an Argument" you evaluate someone else's argument. Also evaluate the reasoning and structure of the argument. Look for transition words and phrases to show the author's logical connections (e.g., however, thus, therefore, evidently, hence, in conclusion ). Key Concepts argument -- a claim or a set of claims with reasons and evidence offered as support assumption -- a belief, often unstated or unexamined, that someone must hold in order to maintain a particular position alternative explanation -- a competing version of what might have caused the events in question that undercuts or qualifies the original explanation because it too can account for the observed facts counterexample -- an example, real or hypothetical, that refutes or disproves a statement in the argument analysis -- the process of breaking something (e.g., an argument) down into its component parts in order to understand how they work together to make up
the whole evaluation -- an assessment of the quality of evidence and reasons in an argument and of the overall merit of an argument conclusion -- the end point reached by a line of reasoning, valid if the reasoning is sound; the resulting assertion Analysis Arguments Level 3 What is the author trying to tell the reader? What specific reasons does he/she give to support this point in the text? How does the text structure support the authors reasons for his/her arguments? What points in the text support the statement ____? Which claims in the text are supported by reasons? Which are not? Is the authors reasoning Level 4 Level 5 What is the authors main What reasons does the author argument/ claim in the text? How
do you know? provide to support his/her claim that __? Describe each reason. Describe how the author develops the claim that ___. Include specific words and examples from the text. Evaluate the effectiveness of the authors claim. Support your opinion with examples from the text. What problems do you see with the authors reasoning about his/her claim? How could you counter his/her reasoning? Include specific details from the text in your answer. What reasons/evidence does the author give to support the argument that __ in the text? What is the connection between the sentence that starts with ___ and the one that starts with __? How do these two sentences support the authors main claim? How does the paragraph about __ relate to the paragraph about__? How do these two paragraphs work together to support the authors main claim? Does the author make any claims that are not supported by reasons or evidence? If so, which ones? Is the evidence presented to support the authors argument
Comparison of Multiple Texts The ability to compare one thing to another is a natural human tendency. Despite this natural human inclination to make comparisons, however, students need instruction in order to fully utilize these skills in an academic setting. The comparative analysis of multiple texts is a complex skill that necessitates instruction, guidance and practice in order to master. Comparing multiple task can be a daunting task but with text dependent questions to help guide students through the development of these skills. There are 3 different ways to compare texts. General Literary Informational Comparison of Multiple Texts Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 How are the texts the same? How does the culture affect the What are the main differences How are they different? Refer to specific examples in the text. between __ and __? Compare and contrast the illustrations or visual elements in the 2 texts. How are the characters in the
texts similar? How are they different? How are the adventures of the characters in the stories the same or different from each other? What are the physical similarities and differences between the characters? Describe how the two texts two versions of the story or tell the story of __. List at event? least 3 similarities and 3 What similarities and differences differences. do you notice between the How does the genre of these multiple books by __? Include texts affect the similarities specific examples from the texts to support your answer. and differences between them. Do the texts have similar or What similar themes do different tones? Compare and contrast the tones using examples these texts share? Provide and specific details from the text. examples from each text to What are some of the similarities support your answer. and differences between the What role does culture play characters personalities, in the way that the appearance and emotions? characters are described in Compare and contrast the
the story? Include examples experiences of the characters in from the story. the stories. Compare and contrast the Comparison of Multiple Texts Level 4 Level 3 Level 5 How is the sequence of events What similarities and How does the setting differ Are these texts from the the same or different in the 2 stories? between _ and __? How are the descriptions of __ similar? How are they different? Use examples from the text. Write a sentence that integrates the information from both texts. What are the different text features used in the texts? What similarities do the texts share? Give an example. differences are there between the themes? same time period or genre? What evidence shows this. What are the key points from the first text? What additional
information about the same topic did you learn from the additional text? Demonstrate how to combine the information from both texts to make a more detailed explanation. What conflicting evidence is presented in the texts? In the series ___, what differences do you notice about the character or characters throughout the text? How does the time period of the texts affect the portrayal of the theme of ___? Are the details about __ in the text similar or different ? Justify your answer from the text. How are the 2 descriptions of __ the same? How are they different? What is the common purpose between the 2 Reference https:// cdn.thisreadingmama.com/ wp-content/uploads/2017/03/ PCBLforKids.pdf
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