How Responsible was Columbus for the Death of the Tainos.

How Responsible was Columbus for the Death of the Tainos.

The Arrival of the Europeans in the Western Hemisphere Nineteenth Century painting of the landing of Columbus in Hispaniola (on display in the Capitaol building in Washington DC) Catalan World Map c. 1450 In 1450 Europeans did not know that the Americas existed and that they had very little knowledge of Africa south of the

Sahara Desert. Why did Europeans not explore the West Atlantic before the 15th Century? Why did Europeans not explore the West Atlantic before the 15th Century? 1. Europeans were more interested in exploring and trading with the East.

2. European countries were frequently at war with each other so they had little interest in expensive exploration. 3. European ships were built for short, coastal journeys, not long ocean crossings. 4. Sailing west required going against the main ocean currents and winds and this was almost impossible in the ships of the time. What Changed?

- New Technologies - Search for New Trade Routes - The Unification of Spain New Technologies Steering Ships The Lateen (triangular) Sail (Lateen sails make it easier to sail in the opposite direction to the wind.) The stem-post (or stern-post)

rudder When both square and lateen sails were used in a caravel construction with a stempost rundder, a ship could be both fast and highly manouverable. New Technologies - Navigation The Compass and the astralable. (An astralabe measures the angle of the stars in the sky)

These technologies were developed by Arabic traders in the Indian Ocean. They help sailors know where they are when out of sight of land. This is important for long ocean voyages. Improved Geographical Knowledge Globe made by a German geographer in 1492 before

Columbus sailed. Columbus believed the Eurasia landmass covered most of the Earths surface TRADE ROUTES TO INDIA AND EAST ASIA BEFORE 1450 Constantinople

Silk Road European trade with India and East Asia was most through the Silk Road. Spices and other goods went over land to Constantinople before being transferred to Italian ships for transportation to the rest of Europe In 1453 Constantinople was captured by Muslim Turks.

The fall of Constantinople threatened European trade with India and East Asia. New trade routes would be needed. Portugal began to explore the coast of

Africa looking for a route to the East. Why Did Spain Support Columbuss Exploration? Christopher Columbus was convinced that India and East Asia could be reached by sailing around the world in a westerly direction. For years he kept asking the kings and queens of Europe to support and pay for a voyage of exploration.

They all refused until, finally in 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabela of Spain agreed. The Reconquista In 1492, the Spanish rulers, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabela of Castile, won their war against the Muslim leaders of Granada. Once the war had finished,

they were able to pursue other projects. One of Spains rivals was Portugal. After 1488 the Portguguese began sailing to India and East Asia around the bottom of Africa. Finding a western route to Asia would help Spain challenge Portugal more effectively. Bartolomeu Dias

-Rounded the southern most tip of Africa in 1488. -To do this he had to sail far out into the Atlantic. He was out of sight of land for 93 days. -Rounding the Cape opened up routes to India and East Asia for the Portuguese. -After this, Portugals focus was on the East more than the Americas. Columbus

Date of Birth: 1450 (or 1451) Place of Birth: Genoa (Italy) Religion: Catholic There has never been a man so courageous and astute in the act of navigation as the lord admiral [Columbus] for, when sailing, by simply observing a cloud or a star at

night, he judged what was to come. . . Michele da Cuneo, who sailed with Columbus, writing in 1495) Was a sailor before 1470. Attacked by pirates in the Atlantic, 1476 Participated in several voyages to Africa and possibly the North Atlantic.

Accomplished geographer and navigator. The Contract Before he sailed, Columbus signed a contract with his sponsors, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain: -Goal: Discover and conquer new lands -The Spanish crown provided limited finance and the ships. -Columbus would be hereditary viceroy & governor of

any new-found lands with the right to appoint judges, and to 10% of the profits. The First Voyage After a shipwreck, a small group of sailors were left on Hispaniola, at Navidad.

The Crowns Choices Ferdinand and Isabella had to make a policy decision between: A: Trade with minimal settlement - (as the Portuguese were doing in Africa) And B: Conquest and large scale settlement. The Treaty of Tordesillas

Under the Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494, the Pope decreed that all newly discovered lands west of a line 370 leagues (approx 900 miloes) from Cape Verde should belong to Spain. Lands to the East would belong to Portugal.

The Second Voyage Paid for and controlled by the crown: -17 ships, 1,200 men Including -financial officers of the crown. -priests -artisans and agricultural labourers -no women -Tano indians to act as translators

The aim of the second voyage was to create a permanent settlement with Columbus as governor but

controlled by the Spanish crown. The focus was trade and conversion of the Indians to Christianity. Aims of the Settlement The settlers, it was assumed, would build a town, plant their crops, establish their livestock

and set up a chain of well-defended warehouses, in which the Indians now subjected to the uplifting influence of Christianity would meekly deposit large quantities of gold. (Cambridge History of Latin America) Columbus 3rd Voyage

During his third voyage (1498) Columbus faced a rebellion on Hispaniola. He was arrested by agents of the Spanish crown and returned to Spain in chains. The Fourth Voyage The fourth voyage, in 1502, aimed to explore the western Caribbean in the hope of finding a route to Asia.

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