How People Learn - University of Iowa

How People Learn - University of Iowa

How People Learn Jill Truyman Jenna Walls Krystle Stehno Samantha Zahner Learning Theories Behaviorist Theory Constructivist Theory

Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Contiguity Theory J. Bruner Piaget (cognitive development) Vygotsky (social development) Fish is Fish Constructivist View Learning Teaching Assessment

Behaviorist Theory Overview Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Contiguity Theory Behaviorist Theory Overview Behaviorists seek scientific, demonstrable explanations for simple behaviors Humans are considered to resemble

machines, which is why behaviorist explanations tend to be somewhat mechanical in nature. Behaviorist Theory Overview Theory Assumptions, cont. Psychology should be seen as a science. Theories need to be supported by empirical data obtained through careful and controlled observation and measurement of behavior. Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed to internal events like thinking and

emotion. Observable (i.e. external) behavior can be objectively and scientifically measured. People have no free will a persons environment determines their behavior Behaviorist Theory Overview Theory Assumptions When born our mind is 'tabula rasa' (a blank slate). There is little difference between the learning that takes place in humans and that in other animals. Therefore

research can be carried out on animals as well as humans. Behavior is the result of stimulus response (i.e. all behavior, no matter how complex, can be reduced to a simple stimulus response association). All behavior is learnt from the environment. We learn new behavior through classical or operant conditioning. Behaviorist Theory Overview Theory Principles The following are valuable:

Repetition Small, concrete, progressively sequenced tasks Positive and negative reinforcement Consistency in the use of reinforcers during the teachinglearning process Habits and other undesirable responses can be broken by removing the positive reinforcers connected with them. Behaviorist Theory Overview Theory Principles, cont. Immediate, consistent, and positive

reinforcement increases the speed of learning. Once an item is learned, intermittent reinforcement will promote retention. Behaviorist Theory Overview Early Behaviorist Theories of Learning Pavlov (early 1900s) founded Classical Conditioning Thorndike (early 1900s) extended the concept further and founded Connectionism Watson (1930) proposed that the process of

classical conditioning (based on Pavlovs observations) was able to explain all aspects of human psychology. Guthrie (1935) extended the concept further and founded Contiguity Theory Behaviorist Theory: Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning was discovered accidentally by Ivan Pavlov during his dog salivation experiment Found that animals learn through repetition and rewards

Classical Conditioning was later developed by John Watson Classical conditioning involves learning to associate an unconditioned stimulus to a new stimulus Behaviorist Theory: Classical Conditioning Pavlovs Experiment Started from the idea that there are some things that a dog does not need to learn (aka salivating

when food is near). This is an unconditioned reflex (or a stimulus-response connection that required no learning). Pavlov discovered that any object or event the dogs learned to associate with food (like a lab assistant) would trigger the same response (conditioned reflex). The lab assistant was originally a neutral stimulus (since it produced no response) but became associated with the unconditioned stimulus (food) Behaviorist Theory: Classical Conditioning Pavlovs Experiment, cont.

Pavlov started a new experiment by using a bell as his neutral stimulus. Whenever he gave food to his dogs, he also rang a bell. After a number of repeats of this procedure he tried the bell on its own. The bell now caused an increase in salivation. The dog learned an association between the bell and the food and a new behavior had been learned. This is called a conditioned response. The neutral stimulus had become a conditioned stimulus. Behaviorist Theory: Classical Conditioning

Give me a dozen healthy infants, wellformed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select - doctor, lawyer, artist, merchantchief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and the race of his ancestors (Watson, 1924, p. 104). Behaviorist Theory: Classical Conditioning John Watson

Behaviorism as a movement in psychology appeared in 1913 when John Watson published the article Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Watson believed that all individual differences in behavior were due to different experiences of learning. Watson denied completely the existence of the mind or consciousness. Behaviorist Theory: Classical Conditioning Watsons Experiment

Famously known as Little Albert (1920) Little Albert was a 9 month old infant. Watson and Raynor tested Little Alberts reaction to various stimuli He was shown a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey, and various masks. These were all neutral stimuli since Little Albert was stolid and unemotional to these stimuli. When a hammer was struck against a steel bar behind his head, the sudden loud noise would cause Albert to cry. This was the unconditioned response. Behaviorist Theory: Classical

Conditioning Watsons Experiment, cont. When Little Albert was 11 months old, the white rat was presented and seconds later the hammer was struck. This was repeated 7 times in 7 weeks and each time Albert would cry. By this time Albert would see the rat and would show an immediate sign of fear. He would cry before the hammer hit and he would attempt to crawl away. Behaviorist Theory: Classical Conditioning

Watsons Experiment, cont. Watson and Raynor had shown that classical conditioning could be used to create a phobia Over the next few weeks and months Albert was observed and 10 days after conditioning his fear of the rat was much less marked. This dying out of a learned response is called extinction. However, even after a full month the fear was evident. Behaviorist Theory: Operant Conditioning

Overview: B.F. Skinner came up with the Operant Conditioning idea of Behaviorist Theory in the 1950s. The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that

occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem. Behaviorist Theory: Operant Conditioning Overview, cont. When a particular Stimulus-Response pattern is reinforced, the individual is conditioned to respond. Skinner explains drive, or motivation, in terms of deprivation and reinforcement schedules.

Behaviorist Theory: Operant Conditioning Principles Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur; intermittent reinforcement is particularly effective Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping") Reinforcements will generalize across similar

stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing secondary conditioning Behaviorist Theory: Operant Conditioning Reinforcement Reinforcement is the key element in Operant Conditioning. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response when it is added

Examples: verbal praise, a good grade, or a feeling of increased accomplishment. Behaviorist Theory: Operant Conditioning Reinforcement, cont. A negative reinforcer is the removal of an adverse stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response. Negative reinforcement strengthens behavior because it stops or removes an unpleasant experience.

Example: If you dont complete your homework you pay your teacher $5 Behaviorist Theory: Operant Conditioning Application Operant Conditioning has been used to account for verbal learning and language, although this effort was strongly rejected by linguists and psycholinguists.

Operant conditioning has been widely applied in clinical settings (behavior modification) Operant Conditioning has been applied in teaching (classroom management) and instruction (programmed instruction) Behaviorist Theory: Operant Conditioning Programmed Instruction Examples of Operant Conditioning applied to instruction:

1. Practice should take the form of question (stimulus) answer (response) frames which expose the student to the subject in gradual steps 2. Require that the learner make a response for every frame and receive immediate feedback 3. Try to arrange the difficulty of the questions so the response is always correct and hence a positive reinforcement 4. Ensure that good performance in the lesson is paired with secondary reinforcers such as verbal praise, prizes and good grades. Behaviorist Theory: Contiguity Theory

Guthrie's contiguity theory specifies that "a combination of stimuli which has accompanied a movement will on its recurrence tend to be followed by that movement". According to Guthrie, all learning was a consequence of association between a particular stimulus and response. Furthermore, Guthrie argued that stimuli and responses affect specific sensory-motor patterns; what is learned are movements, not behaviors. Behaviorist Theory: Contiguity Theory

In contiguity theory, rewards or punishment play no significant role in learning since they occur after the association between stimulus and response has been made. Contiguity theory suggests that forgetting is due to interference rather than the passage of time; stimuli become associated with new responses. Previous conditioning can also be changed by being associated with inhibiting responses such as fear or fatigue. The role of motivation is to create a state of arousal and activity which produces responses that can be conditioned. Behaviorist Theory: Contiguity Theory Principles

In order for conditioning to occur, the organism must actively respond (i.e., do things). Since learning involves the conditioning of specific movements, instruction must present very specific tasks. Exposure to many variations in stimulus patterns is desirable in order to produce a generalized response. The last response in a learning situation should be correct since it is the one that will be associated. Behaviorist Theory: Contiguity

Theory Experiment The classic experiment for Contiguity Theory is cats learning to escape from a puzzle box. Guthrie used a glass paneled box that allowed him to photograph the movements of cats. These photographs showed that cats learned to repeat the same sequence of movements associated with the preceding escape from the box. Improvement comes about because irrelevant movements are unlearned or not included in

successive associations. Behaviorist Theory: Contiguity Theory Application Contiguity theory is intended to be a general theory of learning, although most of the research supporting the theory was done with animals. Guthrie applied his framework to personality disorders. Behaviorist Theory

Strengths Weaknesses Scientific Highly applicable (therapy) Emphasizes objective measurement Many experiments support the theories Identify comparisons between animals and humans

Ignores mediational processes Ignores biology Too deterministic (no free will) Experiments have low ecological validity Humanism- cant compare humans to animals Reductionist (describe human behavior in terms of simple components) Constructivist Theory Overview J. Bruner

Jean Piaget cognitive construction Lev Vygotsky general framework for instruction based upon the study of cognition.

social construction Learning Environment Teaching Implications Learning Implications Constructivist Theory Overview Constructivist theory is very broad Constructivism is a philosophical position that views knowledge as the outcome of experience mediated by one's own prior knowledge and the experience of others. Constructivism holds that the only reality we can know is that which is represented by human

thought. Each new conception of the world is mediated by prior-constructed realities that we take for granted. Constructivist Theory Overview Human cognitive development is a continually adaptive process of assimilation, accommodation, and correction. Social constructivists suggest that it is through the social process that reality takes on meaning and that our lives are formed and reformed through the dialectical process of socialization.

Constructivist Theory Overview There is no blank-slate on which new knowledge is etched, learners come to learning situations with knowledge gained from previous experience, and that prior knowledge influences what new or modified knowledge they will construct from new learning experiences. Learning is active rather than passive. If what learners encounter is inconsistent with their current understanding, their understanding can change to accommodate new experience. Constructivist Theory Overview

Learners remain active by: Applying current understandings Noting relevant elements in new learning experiences Judging the consistency of prior and emerging knowledge Modifying knowledge Constructivist Theory Overview Principles

Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn (readiness). Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student (spiral organization). Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given). Constructivist Theory: J. Bruner

A major theme in the theoretical framework of Bruner is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. Cognitive structure (i.e., schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to "go beyond the information given". Constructivist Theory: J. Bruner

Bruner (1966) states that a theory of instruction should address four major aspects: predisposition towards learning the ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner the most effective sequences in which to present material the nature and pacing of rewards and punishments. Constructivist Theory:

J. Bruner Good methods for structuring knowledge should result in simplifying, generating new propositions, and increasing the manipulation of information. Constructivist Theory: J. Bruner Applications Much of Bruners constructivist theory is linked to child development research (especially with

Piaget). Bruner focuses on language learning in young children. Constructivist Theory: J. Bruner Bruner illustrated his theory in the context of mathematics and social science programs for young children in 1973. "The concept of prime numbers appears to be more readily grasped when the child, through construction, discovers that certain handfuls of beans cannot be laid out in completed rows and columns. Such quantities have either to be laid out in a single file or in an incomplete row-column design in which there is always one extra or one too few to fill the pattern. These patterns,

the child learns, happen to be called prime. It is easy for the child to go from this step to the recognition that a multiple table , so called, is a record sheet of quantities in completed multiple rows and columns. Here is factoring, multiplication and primes in a construction that can be visualized. (Bruner, 1973) Constructivist Theory: Jean Piaget Piagets theory differ from others in several ways It is concerned with children, rather than all learners.

It focuses on development, rather than learning per se, so it does not address learning of information or specific behaviors. It proposes discrete stages of development, marked by qualitative differences, rather than a gradual increase in number and complexity of behaviors, concepts, ideas, etc. Constructivist Theory: Jean Piaget There are three basic components to Piagets theory.

Schemas (building blocks of knowledge) Processes that enable the transition from one stage to another (assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration) Stages of Cognitive Development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational) Constructivist Theory: Jean Piaget Schemas are units of knowledge, each relating to one aspect of the world, including objects, actions and abstract concepts. When a child's existing schemas are capable of explaining what it can perceive around it, it is said to be in a state of

equilibrium, a state of mental balance. Disequilibrium is the state of being unbalanced. A schema can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations. The assumption is that we store these mental representations and apply them when needed. Constructivist Theory: Jean Piaget Assimilation: which is using an existing schema to a new situation. Example: A 2 year old child sees a man who is bald on top of his head and has long frizzy hair on the sides. To his fathers horror, the toddler shouts Clown, clown (Sigler et al., 2003).

Constructivist Theory: Jean Piaget Accommodation: happens when the existing schema (knowledge) needs to be changed to take in new information. In the clown incident, the boys father explained to his son that the man was not a clown and that even though his hair was like a clowns, he wasnt wearing a funny costume and wasnt doing silly things to make people laugh. With this new knowledge, the boy was able to change his schema of clown and make this idea fit better to a standard concept of clown. Constructivist Theory:

Jean Piaget Teaching can support these mental processes by: Providing support for the "spontaneous research" of the child Using active methods that require rediscovering or reconstructing "truths Using collaborative, as well as individual activities Devising situations that present useful problems, and create disequilibrium in the child

Constructivist Theory: Jean Piaget A main theme in Piagets studies is cognitive construction. Cognitive structures are patterns of physical or mental action that underlie specific acts of intelligence and correspond to stages of child development. There are four primary cognitive structures (developmental stages): sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations. Constructivist Theory:

Jean Piaget Sensorimotor (0-2yrs.): intelligence takes the form of motor actions Preoperational (2-7yrs.): intelligence is intuitive in nature. Concrete Operational (7-11yrs.): cognitive structure is logical but depends upon concrete referents. Formal Operational (11+yrs.): thinking involves abstractions Constructivist Theory: Jean Piaget

Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Key Feature: Object Permanence, knowing that an object still exists, even if it is hidden Study: Blanket and Ball Study Piaget hid a toy under a blanket, while the child was watching, and observed whether or not the child searched for the hidden toy. Searching for the hidden toy was evidence of object permanence. Piaget assumed that the child could only search for a hidden toy if s/he had a mental representation of it. Result: Piaget found that infants searched for the hidden toy when they were around 8-months-old. Constructivist Theory: Jean Piaget

Preoperational (2-7 years) Key Feature: Egocentrism, the child's inability to see a situation from another person's point of view Study: Three Mountains The child sits at a table, presented in front are three mountains. The mountains were different, with snow on top of one, a hut on another and a red cross on top of the other. The child was allowed to walk round the model, to look at it, then sit down at one side. A doll is then placed at various positions of the table. The child is then shown photographs of the mountains taken from different positions, and asked to indicate which showed the dolls view.

Piaget assumed that if the child correctly picked out the card showing the doll's view, s/he was not egocentric. Egocentrism would be shown by the child who picked out the card showing the view s/he saw. Results: 4 year olds always point to photos that show their own view. At 7 years they point to the picture that corresponds to the dolls view Constructivist Theory: Jean Piaget Concrete Operational (7-11 years) Key Feature: Conservation, the understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes Study: Conservation of Number

Piaget set out a row of counters in front of the child and asked her/him to make another row the same as the first one. Piaget spread out his row of counters and asked the child if there were still the same number of counters. Results: Most children aged seven could answer this correctly, and Piaget concluded that this showed that by seven years of age children were able to conserve number. Constructivist Theory: Jean Piaget

Formal Operational (11+ years) Key Feature: Manipulate ideas in head, abstract thinking Study: Pendulum Task The method involved a length of string and a set of weights. Participants had to consider three factors (variables) the length of the string, the heaviness of the weight and the strength of push. The task was to work out which factor was most important in determining the speed of swing of the pendulum. Results: Children in the formal operational stage

approached the task systematically, testing one variable (such as varying the length of the string) at a time to see its effect. However, younger children typically tried out these variations randomly or changed two things at the same time. Constructivist Theory: Jean Piaget Criticisms of Piaget Underestimated the ability of children Tests were sometimes confusing of too difficult to

understand Underestimated the impact of culture Tasks are culturally biased Schooling and literacy affect rates of development Formal operational thinking is not universal Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky The major theme of Vygotsky's theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition.

Social Development Theory Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals." (Vygotsky, 1974, p57). Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky

A second aspect of Vygotsky's theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD): A level of development attained when children engage in social behavior. Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction The range of skill that can be developed with adult guidance or peer collaboration exceeds what can be attained alone Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky

"learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function" (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 90) Vygotsky claimed that infants are born with the basic materials/abilities for intellectual development Elementary Mental Functions Attention Sensation

Perception Memory Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky Eventually elementary mental functions become higher mental functions due to interaction within the socio-cultural environment Basic mental functions can be used more effectively and adaptively by using tools of intellectual adaptation

Mnemonics Memory Mind Maps Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky Vygotsky believes that young children are curious and actively involved in their own learning and the discovery and development of new understandings Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky According to Vygotsky, much important learning by

the child occurs through social interaction with a skilful tutor Example: A young girl who is given her first jigsaw. Alone, she performs poorly in attempting to solve the puzzle. The father then sits with her and describes or demonstrates some basic strategies, such as finding all the comer/edge pieces and provides a couple of pieces for the child to put together herself and offers encouragement when she does so. As the child becomes more competent, the father allows the child to work more independently. According to Vygotsky, this type of social interaction involving co-operative or collaborative dialogue promotes cognitive development. (Shaffer, 1996) Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky

In order to gain an understanding of Vygotsky's theories on cognitive development, one must understand two of the main principles of Vygotsky's work: More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)

Refers to someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner Usually a teacher or adult, but this is not always the case For example, who is more likely to know more about the newest music groups, how to win at the most recent video game, a child or their parents? The key to MKOs is that they must have more knowledge about the topic being learned than the learner does

Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) This is an important concept that relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner. For example, the child could not solve the jigsaw puzzle (in the MKO example) by itself and would have taken a long time to do so (if at all), but was able to solve it following interaction with the father, and has developed competence at this skill that will be applied to future

jigsaws. (Shaffer, 1996) Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development Area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given - allowing the child to develop skills they will then use on their own developing higher mental functions. Views interaction with peers as an effective way of developing skills and strategies He suggests that teachers use cooperative learning

exercises where less competent children develop with help from more skilful peers - within the zone of proximal development. Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/ vygotsky.html Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky According to Vygotsky language plays 2 critical roles in cognitive development.

It is the main means by which adults transmit info to children. Language itself becomes a very powerful tool of intellectual adaptation. Vygotsky sees "private speech" as a means for children to plan activities and strategies and therefore aid their development. Vygotsky believed that language develops from social interactions, for communication purposes. Later language ability becomes internalized as thought and inner speech. Thought is the result of language. Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky

A current application of Vygotsky's theories is "reciprocal teaching", used to improve students' ability to learn from text. Teacher and students collaborate in learning and practicing four key skills: summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting. Teacher's role in the process is reduced over time. Constructivist Theory: Lev Vygotsky Vygotsky's theories also feed into current

interest in collaborative learning, suggesting that group members should have different levels of ability so more advanced peers can help less advanced members operate within their ZPD. Constructivist Theory: Learning Environment Characteristics of a constructivist learning environment Constructivist learning environments provide multiple representations of reality.

Multiple representations avoid oversimplification and represent the complexity of the real world. Emphasize knowledge construction inserted of knowledge reproduction. Emphasize authentic tasks in a meaningful context rather than abstract instruction out of context. Constructivist Theory: Learning Environment Characteristics of a constructivist learning environment, cont. Provide learning environments such as real-world settings or case-based learning instead of predetermined sequences of instruction. Encourage thoughtful reflection on experience. Enable context- and content- dependent

knowledge construction." Collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiation, not competition among learners for recognition." Constructivist Theory: Teaching Implications Teaching cannot be viewed as the transmission of knowledge from enlightened to unenlightened. Teachers act as guides who provide students with opportunities to test the adequacy of their current understandings. Constructivist Theory: Teaching Implications

If learning is based on prior knowledge, then teachers must note that knowledge and provide learning environments that exploit inconsistencies between learners current understandings and the new experiences before them. This can be a challenge, teachers cannot assume that all children understand something in the same way and children may need different experiences to advance to different levels of understanding. Constructivist Theory: Teaching Implications

If students must apply their current understandings in new situations in order to build new knowledge, then teachers must engage students in learning. Teachers can ensure that learning experiences incorporate problems that are important to students. Encouraging group interaction helps students become explicit about their own understanding by comparing it to that of their peers. Constructivist Theory: Teaching Implications If new knowledge is actively built, then time is needed to build it. Ample time facilitates student reflection about new experiences, how those experiences line

up against current understandings, and how a different understanding might provide students with an improved view of the world. Constructivist Theory: Learning Implications Learning styles can be defined as characteristics cognitive, affective, and psychological behaviors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment. Learners not only construct knowledge but the knowledge they already possess

affects their ability to learn new knowledge. (behaviorist) Constructivist Theory: Learning Implications Prior knowledge and sense- making are very conspicuous in the constructivist view of learning (constructivist) Constructivism: The learners mind is not a blank slate upon which new knowledge can be inscribed. S/he comes into a classroom with a brain already wired by previous experiences. Constructivist Theory:

Learning Implications Another instructional implication of constructivism is that instructional strategies that facilitate the construction of knowledge should be favored over those that do not Constructivism in Fish is Fish Fish is Fish is a story about learning, that involves a frog and a fish (Lionni, 1970). Fish is Fish is mostly supported by the constructivist viewpoint

Constructivism in Fish is Fish Learning The fish learned only from what the frog described based on his prior knowledge Its important to pay attention to students prior knowledge, that way you can predict where students misconceptions might be and correct them before they become an issue. Students build on misconceptions if they arent

corrected (frog = fish) Since the fish was never corrected on his idea that everything looked like a fish, by the end of the book he still had these misconceptions. The frog should have started his teaching by explaining that frogs and fish are not the same things, and there are a lot of things out in the world that are different from fish. Only after this concept is grasped should the frog introduce new ideas. Constructivism in Fish is Fish Learning, cont. Two students began at the same level and grew

differently because of different opportunities No two students are the same, especially in kindergarten the new students coming in are at all various levels (some having no education about reading and the alphabet, some being able to read short story-books). Its important to try to give all students opportunities to learn to try to level the playing field. Constructivism in Fish is Fish Learning, cont. Learning is building new ideas from old ideas based on new knowledge or experience, or

learning is making connections between new and old ideas (Constructivism) Constructivism in Fish is Fish Teaching Two students began at the same level and grew differently because of different opportunities No two students are the same, especially in kindergarten the new students coming in are at all various levels (some having no education about reading and the alphabet,

some being able to read short story-books). Its important to try to give all students opportunities to learn to try to level the playing field. Learning is building new ideas from old ideas based on new knowledge or experience, or learning is making connections between new and old ideas (Constructivism) Constructivism in Fish is Fish Teaching When the fish jumps out of the water, the frog pushes him back in

It is important to encourage students to think outside the box and push their learning, but once a student goes overboard (whether that means getting frustrated and not wanting to learn anymore or getting upset about the amount of work something takes) a teacher needs to be able to push a student back into his or her comfort zone so that they can continue their learning process. Teachers need to know the limits of their students Teaching, cont. Teachers must pay attention to prior knowledge and possible misconceptions

The frog in the story never once thought about the students knowledge, he based all of his teaching off of his own knowledge. This caused a lot of misconceptions Teaching is creating a learning environment in which you can flexibly facilitate learning Assessment In the book the frog never assessed the fishs learning

This made it so that the teacher was never aware of the misconceptions that existed, and therefore the misconceptions were never fixed The fish jumps out of the water his learning is self-assessed by the world because he realizes he cant live in the world which means that a fish is not equal to a frog Students can self-assess, and often self-assessment makes students more aware of their learning and can correct misconceptions. It is important to be around when a student is self-assessing to be able to correct misconceptions and be able to help a student if he or she is pushed out of their comfort zone.

Assessment The fish found out what he knows and doesnt know by self-assessment Self-assessment cannot be the only form of assessment because it doesnt allow for students to build on their knowledge Assessment helps students know what they know and dont know

Assessment Assessment helps students by correcting misconceptions and it helps teachers to realize what kind of misconceptions they are creating or what types of things have been overlooked in a lesson It is important to observe student work to analyze what the student knows or doesnt know Assessment is the testing and/or verifying that correct learning has occurred References

Bransford J.D., A.L. Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.) (1999). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Cobb, J.T. (2009, May 21). A definition of learning. Message posted to http://www.missiontolearn.com/2009/05/definition-oflearning/ Kearsley, G. (1994-2009). Retrieved from http://tip.psychology.org/theories.html. Lionni, L. (1970) Fish is Fish. New York: Scholastic Press. References Ryder, Martin. (November 8, 2009). Constructivism. Retrieved November 21, 2009 from http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/constructivi sm.html Scarborough, Dorothy. (August 1996). Constructivism. SEDL Letter Volume IX, Number 3. Retrieved November 21, 2009 from http://www.sedl.org/pubs/sedletter/v09n03/welcome.html

SIL International. (July 2, 1998) Behaviorist theories of learning. Retrieved November 21, 2009 from http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy/ImplementALiterac yProgram/BehavioristTheoriesOfLearning.htm

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