Topic 4: Multicellular Organisms Topic Overview: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Cell differentiation Organization of multicellular organisms Gas exchange

Transport system in plants Digestive system Excretory system Circulatory system Impact of Lifestyle choices on organs 3. Gas Exchange In animals, the exchange of gases by diffusion between the internal and external environment of organisms is facilitated by the structure and function of the

Respiratory System Main organs: -Bronchi, bronchioles, diaphragm, lungs Function: -breathing 3. Gas Exchange Gas Exchange (Animals): http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=vfU7MUVV7HA&feature=relmfu 3. Gas Exchange Gas Exchange: The

pathway of air: Nostrils (filter, warm and humidify) Pharynx Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli Blood 3. Gas Exchange Main organs of the respiratory system: Organ

Function Lungs Exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen with blood Trachea Provides airflow from the head to lungs Bronchi Move air to the lungs

Diaphragm Contract and relax creating and intercostal the actions of inhalation muscles (breathing in) and exhalation (out) 3. Gas Exchange Lungs: -organs that extract oxygen from the environment -consists of tiny structures called alveoli that exchange gases (carbon dioxide and oxygen) with the circulatory system -large surface area for gas exchange (millions of

alveoli) -rich blood supply -short diffusion path for gasses moving between alveoli and blood -thin layer of fluid covering the surface of alveoli 3. Gas exchange Gas Exchange: The alveoli: Located at the end of the bronchioles. Alveolar are one cell thick. Extremely large surface area compared to

volume. Air moves in and out due to pressure differences. Ventilation inhaling and exhaling. 3. Gas exchange Gas Exchange: Gas exchange occurs between the alveolar wall and the blood (circulatory system) Direction of diffusion is determined by the concentration gradient that does not require the additional input of energy Inhaled air has high concentration of oxygen and low concentration of carbon dioxide.

Oxygen dissolves across moist surface and diffuses into RBC. 3. Gas exchange Gas Exchange: Both oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the cell membrane down a concentration gradient Inhalation oxygen is drawn into the lungs Concentration of oxygen in high in the alveoli Oxygen diffuses passively from high concentration (alveolus) to low concentration (blood)

RBC transports oxygen to the cells of the body 3. Gas exchange Gas Exchange: Oxygen diffuses passively into body cells where its used to generate energy (aerobic respiration) Glucose

water Carbon + oxygen carbon dioxide + dioxide is produced as a by-product of aerobic respiration Carbon dioxide moves out of the cell into the blood by simple diffusion Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood (higher conc.) into the lungs (lower conc.) to be expelled by exhalation

3. Gas exchange Gas Exchange: The efficiency of gas exchange can be affected by ventilation rate, surface area and number of red blood cells. See ventilation below: 3. Gas Exchange Gas Exchange: Factors affecting rate of gas exchange across the alveoli are:

1. Concentration of oxygen or carbon dioxide in the air. 2. Rate and depth of breathing. 3. Number of red blood cells. 4. Rate of blood flow across the alveoli.

Other Factors: 1. Lung function is impaired for those suffering from asthma, as the bronchioles may be restricted 2. Emphysema person has reduced area of alveolar membrane which limits diffusion rate, so may need to breathe a more pure/concentrated air. 3. Gas exchange Gas Exchange: Other

Factors continued.. 3. Carbon Monoxide product of car engines. 200 times more strongly attracted to hemoglobin than oxygen/carbon dioxide. So too much consumption may cause unconsciousness or even death due to oxygen starvation. Fact! it is actually the build up of carbon dioxide, rather than the lack of oxygen which is detected by a special part of the brain called the respiratory center, as the stimulus to breathe more rapidly and deeply. 3. Gas exchange Gas Exchange:

Ventilation and blood flow maintain the concentration gradient of respiratory gases. Other molecules can diffuse across the alveoli: Nicotine (smokers) Servoflurane and nitrous oxide (anaesthetists) Alcohol Water https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hc1YtXc_84A Respiratory System Overview - http://youtu.be/p4zOXOM6wgE

(Song) 3. Gas Exchange Gas Exchange - Activities: Read page 137 to 140 of your text book. 2. Class discussion: a. What symptoms do the human illnesses asthma, emphysema, pneumonia and anemia have in common? b. What is the reason for these symptoms? c. Each of these illnesses interferes with one or more of the important components of the gas exchange process. How does this occur in each case? d. What are some lifestyle choices that may affect

respiratory function and what are their effects? 3. Read page 141 to 143 and then answer question 1. 3. Gas Exchange Gas Exchange - Activities: Lung Dissection: Identify organs and tissues of the respiratory system show the connection of the circulatory and respiratory systems

inflate the lungs perform a lung dissection examine the blood vessels connecting the heart to the lungs (introduction to circulatory system) -record observations and complete worksheet 3. Gas exchange Gas Exchange (Plants): In plants gas exchange is facilitated by the structure of the leaf 3. Gas exchange Internal Structure: Leaf organ contains 3 types of tissue (dermal,

vascular and ground) Ground tissue contains photosynthetic cells (palisade mesophyll and spongy mesophyll) Spongy Mesophyll- loosely packed cells to provide air spaces to increase the rate of gas exchange Palisade Mesphyll- closely packed cells on the upper part of the leaf, contain lots of chloroplasts, high photosynthetic activity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=co0JdqUlycg 3. Gas exchange Stomata: Gases are exchanged mainly via stomata- tiny pores in the dermal tissue

Each stomata consists of a pair or guard cells which can change shape to cause the stomata to open or close The opening and closing allows for the exchange of gases between the plant and the atmosphere 3. Gas exchange Diffusion of gases in and out of leaves Carbon dioxide enters the stomata (via diffusion) and to the air spaces in the mesophyll

Carbon dioxide diffuses passively down its concentration gradient into photosynthetic cells Photosynthesis occurs: Carbon dioxide + water sunlight glucose + oxygen Oxygen produced diffuses out through the stomata 3. Gas exchange Activities:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Pz40FcHshU Practical: Compare the distribution and density of stomata in different leaves. 3. Gas exchange Density and Distribution of Stomata Fewer stomata on desert plants. Stomata may be sunken.

Stomata may only appear on one side of leaf. 3. Gas exchange Activity Procedure: 1. Boil 200ml of water in a 500ml beaker 2. When the water has boiled, turn off the Bunsen

burner. Let the water cool for a few minutes until no bubbles appear. 3. Using a pair of forceps/tongs, plunge the leaf into the hot water. 4. Observe carefully for bubbles appearing from the leaf surface and record your observations. 5.

Repeat using different types of leaves. 4. Transport System in Plants Important organs in plants: 4. Transport System in Plants Important organs in plants: 4. Transport Systems in Plants Vascular plants have efficient transport systems that move water, minerals and sugars between different organs Xylem and Phloem are present in all organs of vascular plants:

-Xylem: transports water and minerals -Phloem: transports sugar, amino acids, hormones and minerals 4. Transport System in Plants Transport of water and minerals from the roots occurs via Xylem: Xylem consists of hollow cells called tracheids and vessel elements Tracheids and Vessel elements: have thick cell walls made of lignin Elongated cells Join together to form tubes called vascular

bundles https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jtuX7H05tmQ 4. Transport System in Plants Water and nutrients are absorbed from the soil and are transported in vascular tissue to cells Water diffuses into the plant roots via osmosis into xylem vessels Minerals enter the root by facilitated diffusion and active transport Water molecules form a transpiration stream inside xylem Water accumulates in the roots creating root pressure pushing water and minerals

upwards (water is a cohesive molecule) Water and minerals moves from roots to stems to leaves https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kv _0udatlh8 4. Transport System in Plants Transport of sugars, hormones, amino acids and minerals occur via phloem Phloem Transports material made in leaves to other organs Consists of specialised cells called sieve tube elements

-join to form tubes called vascular bundles Phloem sap (containing a mix of sugars, hormones, mineral, water) is transported by phloem vessels 4. Transport System in Plants Flow of materials of the phloem sap Sugars are actively transported into the sieve tube elements of phloem Increases solute concentration Water moves into the phloem vessel by osmosis

Increases water pressure in the phloem Sugar moves out of the vessel into the sink cell (flowers/ growing stem/roots) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QXdujo4PZ7 c 4. Transport System in Plants 4. Transport System in Plants Activities: 1. Read pages 161- 168 2. Copy summary 9.3 (pg 168) 3. Complete question 12

4. Research: Explore adaptations of plants that facilitate water conservation (e.g. colour of leaves, shape of leaves, waxy cuticle, number of stomata). 5. Digestive System Digestive System The digestive system is responsible for the breakdown of food and the absorption of nutrients required for survival https://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=_QYwscALNng

5. Digestive System Digestive System (animals): Food is a complex mixture of many substances: Vitamins Minerals Water Macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) Failure to take in one or more essential nutrients results

in malnutrition, caused by: not eating enough not eating a balanced diet not absorbing nutrients from food 5. Digestive System A balanced diet consists of essential nutrients required by cells Nutrients Function Protein Growth, repair and maintenance of cells

Carbohydrate Source of energy/ energy storage Fat Source of energy/ energy storage/ insulation Vitamins and Minerals Facilitates important chemical reactions in cells

Water Keeps the organism hydrated/ facilitates chemical reactions in cells Dietary Fibre Helps move food through intestines 5. Digestive System Nutrition is the process of taking in food and making nutrients available to the organism FOUR stages of Nutrition Stage

Action 1. Ingestion Food if taken into the mouth 2. Digestion Food is broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed -Physical digestion -Chemical digestion 3. Absorption Smaller molecules are absorbed by blood

4. Elimination Undigested material is eliminated from the body 5. Digestive System The 4 stages of food processing are facilitated by one or more organs in the digestive system 5. Digestive System Ingestion Mouth: Teeth and tongue break down food Salivary glands make Saliva that contains digestive enzymes, water and mucus

to break down food Mucus helps to lubricate food making it easier to swallow Oesophagus: Long muscular tube connecting mouth to stomach Moves food by a series of contractions 5. Digestive System Digestion (physical and chemical) Stomach:

Consists of muscle and epithelial tissue Epithelial tissue consists of cells that secretes digestive enzymes, hydrochloric acid and protective mucus (chemical digestion) Muscle tissue moves food around breaking down larger particles of food (physical digestion) 5. Digestive System Absorption Small Intestine

Site of 95% of nutrient absorption Long (~5m) tube-like organ Has specialised structures called villi lining the interior wall of the small intestine Villi increases surface area for the efficient absorption of nutrients from food 5. Digestive System Absorption Villi (singular villus)

The villi are microscopic fingerlike projections that have a outer layer of epithelial cells, which themselves have tinier projections call microvilli. Increase the surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients from food Villi are coated with digestive enzymes to breakdown large macromolecules to be absorbed Have a rich blood supply Nutrients diffuse from the small intestine into the blood https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Onoq1Ok7_ KM

5. Digestive System Digestive Enzymes Biological catalysts (speed up chemical reactions) They break down larger molecules into smaller particles that can be absorbed into the blood Each type of macromolecule requires a specific digestive enzyme to break it down 5. Digestive System Macromolecules Food contains macromolecules (fats, proteins, carbohydrates) that are too large to diffuse into blood.

5. Digestive System Digestive Enzymes Digestive Enzyme Macromolecule which is broken down Product of digestion Proteases

Protein (eg. Meat, eggs) Amino acids Carbohydrases (eg. Amylase, lactase) Complex carbohydrates (eg. Starch, glycogen) Simple

carbohydrates (eg. Glucose) Lipases Lipids (eg. fats, oils) Fatty acids and glycerol 4. Digestive System Elimination Large Intestine Shorter tube-like organ

(~1.5m) Water, salts and vitamins are absorbed from the digested mass of food inside the colon Undigested material is transformed into faeces which are stored in the rectum 4. Digestive System Research Task: 1. What are enzymes and how do they work? 2. What are the roles of the digestive enzymes amylase and lipase in digestion?

3. What are some internal factors that may affect the activity of these enzymes? 4. What would the consequences be? 4. Digestive System Completion Practical: Perform experiments to show the products of digestion are the monomers of macromolecules (e.g. use of Benedicts solution and Sudan III). 5. Digestive System Summative Investigation Folio Task Design Task: Effect of various factors* on digestive system enzymes (lipase or amylase) *pH

*Temperature *substrate concentration 3 Lessons for designing the investigation question/ hypothesis, method and safety assessment (1 submitted for approval per group) 1 lesson for conferencing to approve your practical 2 Lessons to undertake the practical in a group. Each student is to submit a practical report Draft for feedback is due 1 week after experiment is completed Final copy is due 1 week after drafts are returned http://samson.kean.edu/~breid/enzyme/enzyme.html 5. Excretory System Water Regulation & Excretion:

Video Water Regulation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vB7tSHqR1eY Video The Nephron http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glu0dzK4dbU 6. Excretory System Water Regulation & Excretion: Each kidney receives blood at very high pressure through a renal artery. Inside

the kidney this artery divides into capillaries with little loss of blood pressure. The capillaries carry the blood to tiny cup-shaped structures called Bowmans capsules. Each of these structures is the beginning of the nephron. There

are over a million nephrons in each kidney and their function is to filter the blood. 6. Excretory System Water Regulation & Excretion: 6. Excretory System Water Regulation & Excretion: 6. Excretory System Water Regulation & Excretion The Nephron 1. Filtration Blood pressure in the glomerulus forces liquid called glomerular filtrate through the capillary walls into the Bowmans capsule.

2. Reabsorption This occurs in the tubular part of each nephron. The walls of the nephron extract useful substances (glucose etc) and pass them into the blood flowing through the surrounding capillaries. 3. Secretion- The active removal of some substances from the tubal wall into the filtrate. This waste (urine) then leaves the nephron via the collecting duct. 6. Excretory System Water Regulation & Excretion Activities: 1. Read Page 172 174.

2. Copy the summary from page 174. 3. Answer question 1 3 page 174. 4. 5. Read Page 177 179. Copy the diagram of the nephron from page 178.

6. Excretory System Water Regulation & Excretion - Activities: 1. Answer question 10-12 page 179. 2. Class discussion Impact of lifestyle choices on the excretory system diet, caffeine, alcohol, energy drinks 3.

Investigate the way in which the composition of urine changes due to various factors (e.g. disease, injury). 4. Read the extension activity on page 314 and then answer question 1 and 2 at the bottom of 7. Circulatory System In animals, the transport and exchange of materials is facilitated by the structure and function of the circulatory system 7. Circulatory System

Exchange surfaces of the body must be thin, moist and have a large surface area All cells require an constant supply of nutrients to drive metabolic processes All human cells are surrounded by fluid that provides their requirements and assists in the removal of wastes These substances enter/ leave the body at specialized exchange surfaces 7. Circulatory System Exchange of materials occurs between blood and tissue Circulatory system in animals consists of:

A pump (heart) Fluid to transport dissolved materials like nutrients and wastes (blood) Vessels through which the fluid can flow (arteries, veins, capillaries 7. Circulatory System The Heart: Consists of cardiac muscle tissue The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body through the vena cava.

It then pumps it to the lungs via the pulmonary artery where it receives fresh oxygen and disposes of carbon dioxide. The blood then returns to the heart through the pulmonary vein before it is pumped back out to 7. Circulatory System Blood Vessels: Blood moves through specialised transport structures called blood

vessels. There are 3 types: Arteries: transports blood away from the heart (thicker, elastic walls) Veins: transports blood back to the heart (contain valves) Capillaries: exchange nutrients and waste materials between blood and tissues (narrow walls) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_lgd 03h3te8 1-6:20, 7:23-9:00 6. Circulatory System The Lymphatic vessels:

Lymphatic vessels surround tissue cells and are connected to blood vessels Collects excess fluid that has filtered from the blood through capillaries (containing blood cells and proteins) The lymph capillaries drain into larger lymph vessels which eventually return this fluid back to the circulatory system to maintain blood volume 7. Circulatory System Activities: Read pages 152- 158, 160 Copy summary 9.2 (pg 160) Answer questions 7-9 (pg 160)

Research some lifestyle choices that would affect cardiovascular function

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