Integrating SW programming and research to reach 90 90 90 Frances M Cowan Uz-ucSF Annual Research Day 17th April 2015 Global epidemiology of female sex work (FSW) Effective combination HIV / STI prevention care programmes Novel biomedical approaches are being evaluated Sex work programme and research in Zimbabwe Global epidemiology of
female sex work Effective combination HIV / STI prevention care programmes Novel biomedical approaches are being evaluated Sex work programme and research in Zimbabwe Systematic review of size estimation of FSW populations globally Region Sub Saharan Africa Capital cities Other Urban areas Transactional sex DHS Asia
Ex Russian Federation Eastern Europe Western Europe Latin America & Caribbean FSW prevalence (range) 0.7% - 4.3% 0.4% - 4.3% 0.6% - 9.1% 0.2% - 2.6% 0.1% - 1.5% 0.4% - 1.4% 0.1% - 1.4% 0.2% - 7.4% Vandepitte et al STI 2006
Meta-analysis of the increased burden of HIV experienced by FSWs Region (n countries) N of FSWs Asia (14) 64,224 5.2 % 0.18
21,421 36.9% 7.42% Eastern Europe (4) LA & C (11) ME and N Africa (5) SS Africa (16) %
FSWs with HIV* % HIV+ve in general population * pooled estimate Pooled OR (95% CI) 29.2 (22.238.4) n/a
12.0 (7.319.7) n/a 12.4 (8.917.2) World Bank 2012 HIV Burden among FSWs how does this influence epidemics more generally? FSWs bear a disproportionate burden of HIV worldwide - 13.5 times more likely to be HIV +ve than general population (Baral et al Lancet 2013) Modes of Transmission studies suggest small proportion of new infections attributable to sex work in generalized epidemics (Gouws et al STI 2012) Modes of transmission
in Zimbabwe Modes of transmission studies likely underestimate the population attributable fraction of FSW over the longer term within generalised epidemics Mishra et al PlosOne 2014; Boilly et al 2014 JAIDS Looking upstream to prevent HIV transmission: can interventions with sex workers alter the course of HIV epidemics in Africa as they did in Asia? X
Reference X condom use low activity (# clients) sex work 100% X condom use high activity sex work 100% 100% condom use high and medium activity x condom use high, medium and low activity 100% Steen et al AIDS 2014 Global epidemiology of female sex work Effective combination HIV / STI prevention care programmes Novel biomedical approaches
are being evaluated Sex work programme and research in Zimbabwe Prevention framework Environment Public policy Community Peers Individual Structural, social justice and human rights Biomedical ART and non
ART Behavioural Established Interventions Condoms and lubricant STI treatment Contraception Harm reduction for SW-who inject drugs Peer education
Violence reduction Community empowerment Community empowerment Community empowerment is an approach, set within a broader health and human rights framework, which shapes and creates synergy across intervention components (biomedical, behavioural, structural) Cannot be reduced to a specific activity (e.g., a drop-in-center or other mobilization activities)
Implementation Community empowerment often starts with the promotion of internal social cohesion and ensuring a safe space to gather Mobilization of collective power and action to address the social and structural context of HIV risk Sex worker participation in processes to influence access to material resources Need to undertake this in the context of wider stakeholder
engagement Effectiveness Nested systematic review and meta-analysis (n=30,325 from 22 studies) from low- and middle-income countries Outcome Pooled Odds Ratio HIV Gonorrhea Chlamydia High-titre syphilis Consistent condom use with: All clients New clients
2.22, 3.78 Kerrigan et al Lancet 2015 WHO guidance 2014 The comprehensive package Essential health sector Interventions 1. Comprehensive condom and lube program 2. Harm reduction for substance use 3. Behavioural interventions 4. HIV testing and counselling 5. HIV treatment and care 6. Sexual and Reproductive Health programs 7. Prevention / management of co-morbidities Essential strategies for an enabling environment 8. Supportive legislation, policy and financial
commitment 9. Addressing stigma and discrimination 10.Community empowerment 11.Addressing violence against SWs Young women who sell sex Under researched Substantial minority report starting sex work <18 years < 18 = sexually exploited Increased risk of HIV & STIs Poor negotiation skills Less consistent condom use Increased risk of gender-based violence Increased risk of poor mental health Increased suicide attempts
Increased substance use Increased biological susceptibility Able to attract more clients Maintain longer working hours Global epidemiology of female sex work Effective combination HIV / STI prevention care programmes Novel biomedical approaches are being evaluated Sex work programme and research in Zimbabwe Newer Interventions
Post Exposure Prophylaxis services Sexual assault, unintended exposures Pre Exposure Prophylaxis services Oral (PrEP) Topical (microbicides) FSW HIV care and treatment: Antiretroviral treatment services Prevention of vertical transmission Global epidemiology of female sex work Effective combination HIV / STI prevention care programmes
Novel biomedical approaches are being evaluated Sex work programme and research in Zimbabwe Sisters with a Voice Initially in five sites providing two models of care - expanded in 2013 to 36 sites nationally Clinical services Health education Supported by 170 peer educators (50% paralegals) Developed in close consultation with SWs and other stakeholders
following a situational analysis by NAC Participatory group meetings to support social cohesion and community empowerment 1000 rank of (_n) by site 2000 3000 >24,000 women seen > 60,000 visits > 20,000 STIs treated
>7,500 HIV tests >3,200 women diagnosed HIV positive and referred for ART services 0 4000 5000 End of 2014
01jul2009 01jul2010 01jul2011 Date: 01jul2012 01jul2013 >1.4 million (M), >96,000 (F) condoms distributed in 2014 Analysis of programmatic data > 13,000 women between 2009 and March 2014
28% never tested at first visit (40% falling to 22%) At first visit, already knew HIV+ but not on ART 21% (22% falling to 21%) At first visit, knew HIV+ and on ART 15 % (11% rising to 21%) Hargreaves et al submitted 2015 Analysis of programmatic data 10 new infections per 100 person years of follow-up (95% CI: 7-16%) Hargreaves et al submitted 2015
Future uses of programme data To support national size estimation studies To look at trends in engagement with prevention and care over time Triangulating incidence and coverage measures Morbidity and mortality of sex workers Mobility in and out of sex work Internal and external migration Access to Health Care sub-optimal RDS survey in 3 sites in 2011 (n=870) 50-70% of SWs HIV + 50% of HIV +ve knew their status
25-37% of HIV +ve SWs were on ART 12-22% of HIV ve SWs had HTC within 6 months Cowan et al PLoS ONE 2013 I was afraid that I would be arrested. .. Its just the thought of being seen as a sex worker that gives me the shivers We are not treated well in hospitals. Sometimes if you are suffering from an STI, they will embarrass and humiliate you so that other people will know.
Cluster randomised trial of enhanced ART prevention and treatment including PrEP Goal: to reduce the prevalence of all FSWs with a detectable HIV viral load, >1,000 copies/ml Conduct baseline survey using RDS in 14 outreach sites Recruit 200 SWs per site (total n=2,800 ) Random allocation of 7 matched sites to intervention arms Process Evaluation Program data collection Usual Care Sites Health education, HTC Referral to government
HIV care services as needed, Syndromic STI Contraception, Condoms Cervical Ca screening, Legal advice SAPPH-IRe Ix Sites Usual care plus: HIV negatives Repeat HTC, Offer of PrEP HIV positives PoC CD4; On site ART Intensified community mobilisation with SMS adherence support
Adherence sisters program After 18 months conduct endline survey using RDS in all 14 sites. Recruit 200 SWs per site (total n=2,800 ) HIV prevalence among SWs at baseline at 14 trial sites Overall HIV prevalence 57.5% (95% CI 42.8-79.2) Age 18-24 25-29 30-39 >40 Total n
233/655 372/665 649/948 345/440 2722 % (min and max) * 36% (14-59%) 57% (38-76%) 67% (43-91%) 79% (57-97%) 100 * percents are RDS weighted and means of site values Cascade of care at the 14 SAPPH-IRe sites Additional 15.8% with viral
suppression but reporting not on ART 100% 64.0% 43.3% 33.7% Cascade of care for HIV +ve sex workers a) <25 years b) > 25 years Size estimation and engagement in services among sex workers in Harare, Bulawayo and Mashonaland Central
Estimating the size of SW population in Zimbabwe Size estimates are just that ESTIMATES Useful for Advocacy Informing prevention, treatment and care programmes Programme evaluation Surveillance Methods used for size estimation No perfect method Method to use Local context Existing information Often use a combination of methods and take
median Enumeration/Census Multiplier Capture recapture Sisters Programme provides framework for surveillance and evaluation of prevention and care interventions Sisters Programme
Service provision Expanding to work with young women +/- ART for prevention intervention Size estimation Including methodological issues Migration HIV measurement and surveillance consortium Self testing SAPPH-IRe trial Proper inclusion of sex workers and other key populations is essential to reach 90: 90: 90 The principles of good public
health demand that we strive to reach all affected populations with core HIV services even when facing difficult cultural contexts, severe stigma and discrimination, or challenging security environments. Ambassador Birx May 2014 Acknowledgements Joanna Busza Valentina Cambiano Milton Chemhuru Samson Chidiya Tarisai Chiyaka
Calum Davey Jeffrey Dirawo Liz Fearon Emily Gwavava Stephano Gudekeya Nyasha Masuka James Hargreaves Karin Hatzold Sue Mavedzenge Sibongile Mtetwa Boniface Mudenge Owen Mugurungi Sithembile Musemburi Phillis Mushati Getrude Ncube Andrew Phillips
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