History of television - avcr.cz

History of television - avcr.cz

History of television Tom Suk 1/45 History of television Television - transmitting moving images Joke from times of Soviet Union Who invented television?

2/45 History of television

Television - transmitting moving images Joke from times of Soviet Union Who invented television? Inventor of television was some Jefim Kolorovi Televizenko, who transmitted images from a gallery to his home. 3/45

History of television Alexander Bain 1843 transmitted individual pictures more fax than television

4/45 History of television Johann Wilhelm Hittorf 1869 cathode ray tube (CRT katodov trubice) Willoughby Smith 1873 photoconductivity of

selenium 5/45 Mechanical television Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow German technician (* 1860 Lauenburg (Lbork) 1940 Berlin) Nipkow disk (Nipkowv kotou) 1884

6/45 Mechanical television 7/45 Mechanical television While viewing mechanical television,

one was literally glued to the set Felix the Cat as he looked in 60-line pictures during a 1928 telecast by RCA-NBC 8/45 Mechanical television

9/45 Spinning disk confocal microscopy It focuses the excitation laser through a series of many pinholes on a rapidly rotating disk to accelerate the scanning process. 10/45

Analog television Georges Rignoux, A. Fournier, Paris 1909 matrix of 88 selenium cells Kenjiro Takayanagi 1925 CRT displaying television signal first receiver Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin 1933 iconoscope first electronic camera November 2, 1936, BBC first public regular TV broadcasting

May 1, 1953 TV broadcasting in Czechoslovakia 11/45 Analog electronic camera Iconoscope Super-iconoscope Separate photocathode and accumulative cathode to use

secondary emission 12/45 Analog electronic camera Orthicon Super- orthicon 13/45

Analog electronic camera Vidicon Plumbicon Based on semiconductors: vidicon one type, Plumbicon PN junction 14/45

Black-and-white CRT obrazovka) (ernobl Deflection coils (vychylovac cvky) Phosphor (luminofor) - zinc cadmium sulfide and zinc sulfide silver, the ZnS:Ag+(Zn,Cd)S:Ag

15/45 Black-and-white CRT 16/45 Standards 30 frames/s, 525 lines per frame,

line frequency 15 750 Hz, video bandwidth 5.5 MHz 25 frames/s, 625 lines per frame, line frequency 15 625 Hz, video bandwidth 6.5 MHz Aspect ratio 4:3 17/45

Interlacing (prokldan dkovn) Contrary to progressive scan (neprokldan dkovn) 18/45 Interlacing (prokldan dkovn) Frame two fields (half frames) Snmek dva plsnmky

19/45 One-line signal Horizontal synchronization (sync separator) (dkov synchronizan impuls)

20/45 Vertical synchronization (snmkov synchronizan impuls) 21/45 Amplitude modulation

Radio carrier wave modulated amplitude 22/45 Amplitude modulation DK (OIRT) BG (CCIR)

Audio is frequency-modulated 23/45 Color television

John Logie Baird 1928 Nipkow disk, 3 spirals of apertures, color filters, 3 color light sources at the receiver, commutator 24/45

Color television NTSC (National Television System Committee) Luminance Y=0.3R+0.59G+0.11B Chrominance I=0.6R-0.28G-0.32B (in-phase) Q=0.21R-0.52G+0.31B (quadrature) January 1, 1954 USA first regular color broadcast 25/45

NTSC Amplitude-phase (quadrature) modulation 3.579545 MHz color carrier Two carriers, phase difference 90, amplitude modulation of I and Q phase = hue amplitude = saturation

26/45 NTSC Colorburst (synchronizan impuls barvy) Detail of spectrum color carrier fb America

fb=227.5 15750 Hz=3579545Hz 15750 Hz=3579545 Hz Europe fb=283.5 15750 Hz=3579545Hz 15625 Hz=4429687.5 Hz 27/45 NTSC disturbing pattern from the chrominance signal on the black and white screen

28/45 PAL Phase alternating line (fze stdajc se po dcch) Chrominance U=R-Y, V=B-Y Even field: F=(U,V) Odd field:

F*=(U,-V) 29/45 SECAM Squentiel couleur mmoire postupn penos barev s pamt Odd lines V, even lines U, the other signal from memory from the previous line

Frequency modulation 30/45 Color analog camera Semi-transparent mirrors 31/45

Analog television receiver Block diagram 32/45 Analog television receiver Matrix circuit 33/45

Analog television receiver Color CRT 34/45 Color CRT Dot phosphor (delta gun) color CRT

Inline (or Trinitron) color CRT 35/45 Phosphor for color CRT Blue zinc sulfide with few ppm of silver Green zinc sulfide with copper Red yttrium oxide-sulfide activated with europium

36/45 Present time Camera Charge-Coupled Device (CCD nbojov vzan prvek) Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB digitln televizn vysln) Screen Liquid Crystal Display (LCD Displej z

tekutch krystal) Organic light-emitting diode (OLED organick svtc diody) 37/45 Digital television

DVB-T (Terrestrial) DVB-T2 (Second generation terrestrial) DVB-S (Satellite) DVB-C (Cable)

DVB-T2 in Prague from 1st March 2017 DVB-T last broadcast in 2021 38/45 Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulation (OFDM) A large number of closely spaced orthogonal subcarriers that are transmitted in parallel

39/45 Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulation (OFDM) Orthogonal frequencies peaks of subcarriers line up with the nulls of the other subcarriers Overlap of spectral energy original signal can be recovered

40/45 Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulation (OFDM) Transmitter inverse Fourier transformation Receiver Fourier transformation 41/45

Digital television Standard codecs: o MPEG-4 AVC (H.264) - DVB-T o MPEG-H HEVC (H.265) - DVB-T2 A few digital channels in one original analog bandwidth multiplex o DVB-T: 4 channels SD or 1 channel HD o DVB-T2 : 16 channels SD or 4 channel HD

42/45 Difference between DVB-T and DVB-T2 43/45 Digital television Hybrid Broadcast Broadband Television

(HbbTV) Standard for connection of television and internet 44/45 History of television Thank you for your attention

45/45

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