Henry VIII and the Reformation in England

Henry VIII and the Reformation in England

Lesson 3 The Indus Valley Civilization Page 32 in your textbook Review/Preview What do these four sites have in common? Cultural Hearths Indus Valley Civilization

(2600 BCE 1900 BCE) The Indus Valley civilization flourished around 2,500 BC in the western part of South Asia, in what today is Pakistan and western India It is often referred to as Harappan Civilization,

after its first discovered city, Harappa. Over the next two classes, we will discuss different aspects of the Indus Valley Civilization. Preview

The Harappan civilization is among the least well known ancient civilizations. Thrived at the same time as Egypt and Mesopotamian civilizations. Not discovered until the late 19th century during colonization of India by Great Britain. Comparing Harappa and Egypt/Mesopotamia

1. Writing not deciphered yet 2. No monuments dedicated to gods/royalty 3. Modest burials 4. Little to no evidence of violence and war 5. Technologically advanced Plumbing, engineering, complex city planning, system of weights and measures, metal working.

Guiding Questions for Today How did geography affect the development civilization in the Indus Valley? In what ways do civilizations influence each other? Geography of India

The Indian subcontinent is shaped like a triangle hanging from the southern ridge of Asia. Composed of a number of core regions Mountain ranges River valleys

A dry interior plateau The Himalaya Mountains form the border of the India subcontinent. They are the

highest mountains in the world. Immediately south of the Himalaya is the Ganges river valley, a chief region of Indian culture. The dry Deccan Plateau stretches from the Ganges valley to the southern tip of India

Monsoons Monsoons are seasonal wind patterns that cause heavy rainfall in the summer and winter.

The rainfall causes the Indus and Ganges rivers to swell and flood. Indian farmers depend on the monsoon rains to grow crops. Lush plains are found on Indias eastern and western coasts.

To the west is the Indus River valley, a plateau that forms the backbone of the modern state of Pakistan. In ancient times, the Indus valley enjoyed a moderate

climate, and served as the cradle of Indian civilization. Bellringer Have homework open on desk for checking In your notebooks, write 5 FACTS you recall from yesterdays class about Indian geography

and the Harappan civilization. Roots of Indus Valley Civilization Roots of Indus Valley Civilization Earliest civilizations in Indus Valley was discovered in 1856 by a railroad crew.

Harappa Mohenjo-Daro Both cities shared urban design and architectural features. 3 miles in circumference with populations of 40,000

Trade Contact between Indus Valley and Mesopotamia/Egypt Page: 92 Roots of Indus Valley Civilization Roots of Indus Valley began as early as 7000 B.C.E.

Possibly began as herders who moved into the river valley during colder months. Over time, they may have decided to farm river-watered lands of the valley.

They began trading by boat along the Indus down into the Arabian Sea, into the Persian Gulf, and up the Tigris and Euphrates into Mesopotamia. Where is the Indus valley ? The Indus Valley is on the border between India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The main city may have been Mohenjo-Daro but it could have been Harappa.

Carefully Planned Cities Originating around 2500 B.C.E. the thriving civilizations survived for around 500 years. These cities existed around the same time as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Crete.

Both Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, two of the largest among 500 sites, were three miles in circumference with around 40,000 people. Mohenjo-Daro Archaeological Site

To the north is a citadel or raised area. In Mohenjo-Daro, the citadel is built on a platform about 45 feet above the plain. On the summit was a huge communal bath. Next to the large bath was a huge open spacea granary where food was stored from possible floods. Fortified walls mark the southeast corner. Indus Valley Archaeology

Ancient Harappan city Lothal Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa The lower city was laid out in a grid with the main streets about 45 feet wide. Private houses, almost every one with its own well, bathing space, and toilet consisting of a brick seat over a drainage area. Brick-lined drains flushed by water carried liquid and solid waste,

probably to fertilize nearby fields. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa The regularity of plan and construction suggests a government with organization. No monumental architecture clearly marks the presence of a palace or temple. There is little sign of social classes in the plan or buildings. Indus Valley Burial Sites Heads pointing to the north

Some grave goods, such as pots of food and water, small amounts of jewelry, simple mirrors, and some cosmetics. Not extravagant like royal burials of Egypt or Mesopotamia. Pots from The Indus valley Many pots, pans and cooking vessels have been found in the ancient civilization of the Indus valley. Each of them have had their own decorative, unique design, with some

of them just plain. The pictures to the right are also evidence that they used, and had a strong connection with animals. The pots have shown that they were skilled and put a lot of time into making them. Most of the pots were made of terracotta but some of the ones used for cooking were made of bronze. They used fire to harden the terracotta pots. Decorated pots can also be a sign of wealth because they would cost a lot to trade. The pots were mostly used for storing foods and

drink. Some of them were more ornamental rather than practical . Indus valley toys These toy figures are made out of clay . They were for children to play with. These are ceramic sculptures of a small cart with vases and tools pulled by oxen, from Mohenjo-daro. These carts show they had a strong connection with animals because many of the toys feature animals pulling the carts.Some of these animals are:oxen,cows and horses. These are terracotta toy

carts from the Harappan period I used to enjoy playing with these. Dice Physical and written evidence of dice and dominoes have been uncovered by archaeologists studying the Ancient Indus. Also they were studying ancient China, Meso-America, Egypt, Greece

and Rome. A board, uncovered in the area of Mohenjo-Daro, was said to be the oldest chess board discovered in the world. Gaming pieces The oldest gaming pieces in the world, somewhere in the range of 5,000 years old where found in the Indus Valley, in the range of 3000 2500 BC. Models and Figurines

Many archaeologists think that Harappan people used figurines when they prayed. Maybe the Harrapan people worshiped a female goddess. If they did, do you think it would affect the women in the Indus Valley civilization? Seals of the Indus Valley

Seals are one of the most commonly found objects in Harappan cities. They are decorated with animal motifs such as elephants, water buffalo, tigers, and most commonly unicorns. Some of these seals are inscribed with figures that resemble later Hindu religious figures, some of which are seen today. There were two seals found in 1924 in two different ancient cities six hundred km apart which proved the two cities were linked. The seals were used for part of trade and some seals have their family names carved on. This is a unicorn seal found in Morhenjo daro in 1931 and proved they believed

in mythical creatures. This seal was found seventeen feet and four inches below the ground! The goods that were traded are pots, jewellery and other valuables

explained in other slides. There were more than 2,000 seals discovered by archaeologists in different ancient Indus cities. We think that the symbols on the seals may have been a way of writing and the animals showed that maybe the people kept animals. This seal of a bull is

about the size of a large post stamp. Terracotta Seal This is a terracotta seal from Mohenjo-daro depicting a collection of animals and some script symbols. This sealing may have been used in specific rituals as a narrative token that tells the story of an important myth. Indus valleys

jewellery People of the Indus Valley really loved they're jewellery ,one of the Indus valley civilization best features is its jewellery. We have evidence of the amount of jewellery found in the Indus valley. The Indus valley is

rich in many metals and worthy stones such as Carnelian, gold, copper, turquoise and other metals/semi precious stones We think this ring is made out of carnelian and a precious stone.

Each bead in the Indus valley is approximately 23 centimetres long. Fate of the Harappan Civilization? During the 2nd millennium BCE as Harappan society declined, bands of foreigners filtered into the Indian subcontinent and settled throughout the Indus valley and beyond.

These migrations took several centuries (1500 BCE). Most prominent were nomadic and pastoral peoples speaking Indo European languages who called themselves Aryans or noble people.

They established small herding and agricultural communities throughout northern India. Literary records Interchange between the resident Harappans and the invading Aryans produced new, hybrid culture that we know from the Aryan records. Ironically, these records are almost entirely literary and artistic.

Reversing the Harappan pattern, the early Aryans have left a treasure of literature, but virtually no architectural or design artifacts. Over time, their language became what we know today as Sanskrit, the ancestor of the 22 official languages of India. Others: Bengali Bodo Chhattisgarhi Dogri Garhwali Garo Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Khasi Kodava Takk Kokborok Konkani Kumaoni Maithili Malayalam Manipuri Marathi Mizo Nepali Oriya Punjabi Rajasthani Sanskrit Santali Sindhi Tamil Telugu Tulu Urdu

Early Sanskrit on palm leaf, found in Nepal Dated 11th century BCE Indian Languages

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