Draw the human heart and the main blood vessels in/out of the heart. Label the following on your diagram: 4 chambers 4 valves
All blood vessels going into/out of heart Using a blue pencil, indicate oxygenpoor blood flow Using a red pencil, indicate oxygen-rich blood flow
Cardiac muscle cells can contract spontaneously and independently Regulation of heart activity: 1. Autonomic nervous system Epinephrine, thyroxine: heart rate
Low Ca2+ levels: heart rate 2. Intrinsic conduction system Built into heart tissue & sets basic rhythm Pacemaker = Sinoatrial (SA) Node
Sequence of action: 1. Sinoatrial (SA) node right atrium Generates impulses Starts each heartbeat 2. Atrioventricular (AV) node between atria & ventricles Atria contract 3. Bundle of His (or AV bundle)
4. Bundle branches interventricular septum 5. Purkinje fibers spread within ventricle walls Ventricles contract Records the electrical activity of the heart Electrocardiograph: graphic record of heart activity
P wave: atria contact QRS complex: ventricles contract T wave: ventricles relax
Cardiac cycle = events of one heartbeat Systole: Systole contraction of ventricles
Diastole: Diastole relaxation of ventricles Cardiac Output Animation Lub: closing of AV valves Dub: semilunar
valves close at end of systole Angina pectoris: heart muscle deprived of O2,crushing chest pain
Myocardial infarction (Heart Attack): prolonged angina, heart cells may die Ischemia: Lack of adequate blood supply to
heart Fibrillation: uncoordinated shuddering of heart muscle, useless pump Major cause of death from heart attacks Damage to SA node slower heart rate
Install artificial pacemaker Damage to AV node Heart block: ventricles beat at own rate (slower or not at all) Tachycardia: rapid heart rate (>100 beats/min) Bradycardia: very slow heart rate (<60 beats/ min)
Heart murmur: abnormal or unusual heart sounds Often valve problems
Cardiac Output (CO) = Heart Rate (HR) x Stroke Volume (SV) Stroke volume: volume of blood pumped out by one ventricle with each best Average adult: CO = HR (75 beats/min) x SV (70
ml/beat) CO = 5250 ml/min Progressive weakening of heart Low heart efficiency circulation inadequate to meet tissue needs Caused by:
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