הצדדים האפלים של התאורה

הצדדים האפלים של התאורה

IT IS ALL ABOUT PHOTOBIOLOGY " . ,, 2010 1 " . : PHOTOBIOLOGY ... / ( - )GRAVEYARD SHIFT ? ASTHENOPIA ?-

) , , , ') - . 2 " . ... PHOTOBIOLOGY The study of interaction of biological systems with nonionizing radiation energy in ultraviolet, visible and infrared portion of the Electro-magnetic spectrum is known as photobiology )IESNA - HANDBOOK - CH. 5(. :CIE - ]IESNA[ : UV-C - 100 280 nm * * UV-B - 280 315 nm * UV-A - 315 380 nm : VIS - 380nm 780nm : IR - 780nm 500 X 106nm 3 . " Photobiology

Positive effects Negative effects / Natural source-sun Artificial sources Impact on the human body 4 " . ( ) Impact on- animals

PHOTOBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF LAMPS AND LAMP SYSTEMSCIE DRAFT STANDARD - ? . , (). : PHOTOKERATITIS420nm PHOTORENTITIS700nm - ( ) 1400nm 5 " . 400nm 290nm ERYTHEMA - UV420nm

150nm 180nm ( - )GRAVEYARD SHIFT ? ( ( ( CIRCADIAN )CIRCA=ABOUT DIA=DAY CYCLE - , ( : , , , ). 24 - ( ). , .

ULTRADIAN, INFRADIAN - 6 . - )MELATONIN( . - , ,. . ()STIMULUS !

! 7 . ? 8 " . ASTHENOPIA ? - ASTHENOPIA : , = ,

/ , , ? , /, . - , . ASTHENOPIA - - Ra . FLICKER ! 9 " . = 50% - " - " ."WHITE COLLAR" -

" " ( ) . - 4 - .ASTHENOPIA - 10 " . 30 20 10 0 Lighting- induced cause M is ce llane ous

Type of complaints Inflam m ation Blur ring Eye s train Flick e r Eye s m arting Glar e He adache 20 60 Both 40 Fatigue Wate r ing e ye s Incidence 30

At w ork 50 Incidence % 70 Hom e missing shadows Dis com for t Eye pain 0 glare flicker colour of light Incidence % 70 60

50 40 10 % 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Location where complaints occurred 11 . " - !

Well-being - .Flicker , ,-UV ,Luminous Intensity - . ( !) . ( ). / AGORAPHOBIA - /. 3.5 3 2

1.5 1 0.5 0 12 " . Incandescent lighting Fluorescent fluorescent lighting pulsation lighting pulsation conventional minimal Symptoms p/person 2.5 Luminous modulation of the fluorescent tubes powered by high frequency electronic ballast )top( and conventional core-coil magnetic ballast )bottom( = TRIPHOSPHOR 13

. " / ( ( BENCHMARK . 30MED - MINIMUM 0 ()ACTINIC DOSE j/m2 = ERYTHERMAL DOSE ? 500 2000 ( =5 MED MED 400 - 40 - ()UK UV- C UV-A 14 " .

"" ()BASEL& SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS .1:2,500,000 " " ( 6 X 10-7 - )MALIGNANT MELANOMA ( 80 UK - 700 - ). > 500 > 8/ ( !)SKIN ERYTHEMA . - ( ) , ,. - 500 800 , UV-A . 15 " .

? 2.5 - . ( . /.) " " - .SBS- SICK BUILDING SYNDROME .SBS 10 X 108 16 " . . ! 17 " .

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